Human Nutrition- Chapter 7

Photosynthesis

The process by which green plants use the sun’s energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.

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  • Photo= light
  • Synthesis= put together (making)

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Fuel
Compounds that cells can use for energy. The major fuels include glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids; other fules include ketone bodies, lactate, glycerol, and alcohol.
Metabolism

The sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food.

;

  • metaballein= change

Anabolism

Reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones. Anabolic reactions require energy.

;

  • Ana= up

Catabolism

Reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones. Catabolic reactions release energy.

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  • kata= down

ATP or adenosine triphosphate
A common high energy compound composed of a purine (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups.
Coupled reactions
Pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound.
Coenzymes

Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enztmes’ activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures.

 

  • co= with

Pyruvate
A 3 carbon compound that plays a key role in energy metabolism.
acetyl CoA
A 2 carbon compound (acetate or acetic acid) to which a molecule of CoA is attached.
CoA
Coenzyme A; the coenzyme derived from the B vitamin pantothenic acid and central to energy metabolism.
TCA cycle or tricarbozylic acid cycle
A series of metabolis reactions that break down molecules of CoA to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms; also called the Kreb’s cycle afert the biochemist who elucidated its reactions.
Electron transport chain
The final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP.
Glycolysis

The metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. Glycolysis does not require oxygen.

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  • glyco= glucose
  • lysis- breakdown

Anaerobic

Not requiring oxygen.

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  • an= not

Aerobic
Requiring oxygen.
Mitochondria

The cellular organelles responsible for producing ATP; made of membranes (lipid and protein) with enzymes mounted on them.

;

  • mitos= thread (referring to their slender shape)
  • chondros= cartilage (referring to their external appearance)

Lactate
A 3 carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism.
Cori cycle
The path from muscle glycogen to pyruvate to lactate (which travels to the liver) to glucose (which can travel back to the muscle) to glycogen; named for the scientist who elucidated this pathway.
Keto acid
An organic acid that contains a carbonyl group.
Ammonia
A compound with the chemical formula NH3; produced during the deamination of amino acids.
Transanimation
The transfer of an amino acid group from one amino acid to a keto acid, producing a new nonessential amino acid and a new keto acid.
Urea
The principal nitrogen-excretion product of protein metabolism. Two ammonia fragments are combined with carbon dioxide to form urea.
Oxaloacetate
A carbogydrate intermediate of the TCA cycle.
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