human anatomy and physiology: chapter 1 pearson

anatomy
studies the structure of the body
Physiology
studies the function of the body parts
atom, molecule,organelle,cell,tissue,organ,organ system, organism
The organization of an organism
cells
smallest unit of living things
tissues
a group of similar cells that have a common function
organ
structure composed of at least 2 tissue types that performs a specific function for the body.
necessary life functions
maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness growth,digestion, excretion, reproduction and metabolism,
integumentary system
system composed of hair, skin and nails, covery external body and protects deeper tissue
skeletal system
system composed of bones and joints, protects and supports, provides bodys frame work for muscles
muscular system
system composed of skeletal muscles and allows for movements and manipulation of the envioronment
nervous system
composed of spinal cord, brain and nerves. control system of the body and responds to changes by activating muscles and glands
endocrine system
COMPOSED OF GLANDS THAT REGULATE THE PROCESSES SUCH AS GROWTH AND REproduction
cardiovascular system
composed of heart and blood vessels, transports blood which cariies oxygen, CO2 nutrients and waste. pumps blood
lymphatic system
composed of red bone marrow, nodes, spleen, vessles and thoracic duct, which disposes debris in the lymphatic stream. Immune reponse.
respiratory system
composed of nasal, pharynx, larnx, trachea broncus and lungs, keeps blood supplied with O2 and removes CO2
digestive system
COMPOSED OF ORAL CAVITY, ESOPHOGUS liver, stomache, intestines and rectume. breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
urinary system
Composed of kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra, rids the body of acid-based wastes.
reproductive system
System that functions in producing off springs
homeostasis
the ability to maintain an internal balance even when outside world changes. dynamic state of equilibrium
nervous and endocrine system
2 systems most responsible in maintaining homeostasis
receptor, control center, effector
3 main parts of homeostatic control
receptor
sensor that monitors changes and sends information in an afferent path to control center in negative feedback
control center
determines the set point in feedback, recieves from receptor and send info efferently to effector
effector
responds to the feed back from the control center, shuts off or enhances stimulus
negative feed back
homeostatic control mechanism that shuts off original effect of stimuli or reduces intensity.
positive feedback mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerates
anatomical position
body standing errect with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from the body
directional terms
explain wher one body structure is in relation to another
axial parts
makes up main axis of body including head, neck and trunk
appendicular parts
consists of limbs
regional terms
used to design specific areas within major body divisions
abdominal
trunk inferior to ribs
acromial
point of shoulder
antebrachial
forearm
antecubital
anterior surface of elbow
axillary
armpit
brachial
upper arm
buccal
cheek
CARPAL
WRIST
cephalic
head
coxal
hip
crural
leg
digital
fingers/toes
femoral
thigh
fibular
side of leg
frontal
forehead
inguinal
groin area
mammary
breast region
manus
hand
pelvic
pelvis region
nasal
nose
oral
mouth
orbital
eye
palmar
palm
pateller
anterior knee
pedal
foot
tarsal
ankle
metatarsal
top of foot
calcaneal
heal
dorsal
back
gluteal
butt
lumbar
lower back
occipital
posterior head
olecranal
posterior elbow
otic
ear
popliteal
posterior knee
sacral
area between hips
sural
calf
vertebral
spine
scapular
shoulder blade region
superior
toward the head
inferior
toward the feet
anterior
toawrd front
posterior
toward the back
medial
toward the middle line
lateral
away from the mid line
intermediate
between medial and lateral
proximal
closer to the trunk
distal
further from the trunk
superficial
closer to the surface
deep
away from the surface
median or midsagittal plane
plane dividing body into left and right (median plane)
frontal plane
divides body into posterior and anterior (coronal plane)
transverse (horizontal) plane
cross section, divdes body into inferior and superior
dorsal cavity
protects nervous system organs and contains cranial and vertebral cavity
thoracic cavity
cavity containing the heart and lungs
ventral body cavity
cavity containing the thoracic and abdomino-pelvic cavities
umbilical region
center most region of abdomen
epigastic region
superior to umbilical region
hypogastric region
inferior to the ubilical region in the sbdomen
iliac region
located right and left to the hypogastic region of abdomen
lumbar region
located left and right to the umbiliac
hypochondriac region
located left or right of the epigastric region
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