How Theories of Development Influenc Current Practice Essay
CYP Core unit 3. 1 Assessment Criteria 2. 3: Theories and Theorists Please write down three key points for each theorist and give an example of how it is put into practice in your setting. SKINNER – Operant Conditioning 1. Skinners theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behaviour. 2. Changes in behaviuor are the result of an individual’s response to events that occur in the environment. 3. Reinforcement is the key to Skinners theory.
A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response Example in Setting: All the children have targets for when they are writing, it might be to use capital letters and finger spaces, when they achieve their target the get to colour in a picture and once they have done this six times they get another reward. BANDURA – Social Learning Theory 1. People learn from one another, by watching and copying. 2. His theory encompasses attention, memory and motivation. 3. hildren need to be attentive to learn and be able to retain the info, the more they do something the better they will get and they need to be motivated Example in Setting: To motivate the children to get to school on time, therefore be ready to start the day and not miss out on anything, all the children who achieve 100% attendance during a term get a special reward, this time it was a pen, other children see their friends getting the reward and then want to get into school on time so that they can get one too. PIAGET – Cognitive Development 1.
Believed that children have 4 stages of development. Sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational ; formal operational. 2. Also believed that children are actively involved in their own learning. 3. Piaget came to the conclusion that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Example in Setting: During our art week the children have been painting. They can work out that although they only have a couple of the colours they need, if they mix the ones they have together they will then get all of the colours they need for their painting.
VYGOTSKY – Social Development Theory 1. Children learn in stages and need to develop naturally. 2. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in cognitive development. 3. He saw children as ‘apprentices’ learning and gaining understanding from others. Example in Setting: children learn the word sounds or phonemes and practice these, then they can put them together to make words. Bruner – Modes of Thinking 1. believed that a child’s social environment and the way they interact with others was very important in their learning. . saw that as a child develops they use different ways of representing the things around them. 3. a child starts by using its body to express themselves, then they draw pictures and finally they use words to describe things and express themselves. Example in Setting: Children start drawing simple pictures but as their vocabulary and knowledge increases they can draw more complex pictures and label them accordingly. MASLOW – Hierarchy of Needs 1.
Was a humanist who stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfilment and change through personal growth. 2. Believed that the lower level of needs has to be mastered before the others can be achieved. 3. Everyone can reach the top level of needs, but many can not get there due to life experiences Example in Setting: Children need to know the sounds of the letters before they can put them together to make words, once they know the sounds they can put them together to make words and then put the words togerther to make sentences
WATSON – Behaviourist 1. Did extensive research on animal behaviour, but was best know for claiming that given 12 healthy children, by applying behavioural techniques, he could create any type of person he wanted 2. Conducted his ‘Little Albert’ experiment where he use conditioning to make a young boy afraid of a white rat. 3. He put the emphasis on the external behaviour of people and their reactions to given situations, rather than on their mental state Example in Setting: The children can be given happy pegs or sad pegs.
They get happy pegs for doing nice things like helping in class, tidying up etc and if they get 4 in one day they get into the ‘golden book’ and get a certificate in the weekly assembly. They get sad pegs for when the do not listen to the teacher and for doing things that they have been told not to, if they get 4 of these in one day they have to go and see the head mistress. Social Pedagogy 1. 2. 3. Example in Setting: Optional other theorists Melanie Klein – Psychoanalyst 1. 2. 3. Maria Montessori – Education for a New World 1. 2. 3.