Honors WH Ch. 1 Sec 1

Geography
study of people, their environments, and the resources available to them

Human beings are used as…
resources

Prehistory
period of time before writing systems (5,000 years of actual history)

Why can’t history and prehistory not always be true?
This is because many historians can become biased because of their cultural background or personal experience. Also information interpreted from sources that are not primary, have a higher risk of being false.

History
uses written evidence to tell how people lived

Geographers
add to our knowledge of human history by showing how people lived in different times and places

Anthropology
study of the origins and development of people and their societies

Anthropologists
– study physical features, development, and behavior of people and their societies
– investigate how culture has changed since prehistoric times

culture
refers to a society’s beliefs, values, and practices

Archaelogy
branch of anthropology that looks at past cultures by studying their material remains

Archaelogists
– study artifacts
– use artifacts to draw conclusions about a society’s culture

Relative Dating
group similar artifacts together and then put them in order where the artifacts were found in the ground and this helps them determine the age of the artifacts

Absolute Dating
using science to prove the age of artifacts
ex. noting decrease in chemicals to show age

What kind of experts assist Archaeologists and how do those experts help them out?
– Geologists: determine age of rocks located near archaeological sites
– Botanists & Zoologists: examine seeds and animal bones to discover ancestor’s diet
– Experts of Climate: determine what conditions ancestors faced
– Biologists: analyze human bones

What are the human remains that Archaeologists study?
– artifacts
– fossils

Artifacts
– material items
– objects shaped by human hand that get left behind
-ex: tools, pottery, etc.

Fossils
-once alive
– remnants, impressions, or traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in earth’s crust

Before what time did anthropologists know little about their ancestors
the 1950s

Why were clues about prehistoric groups hard to find?
bc they lacked cities, countries, organized central government, or complex inventions

Where did the first hominids live?
– evidence suggests that the earliest people lived in East Africa
– descendants then most likely migrated north and east (Europe and Asia)

What did hominids need to control?
fire so they could live

Mary and Louis Leakey
– Archaeologists
– searched for clues in the human past deep in Olduvai Gorge (1.7- 2.1 million years old) in Tanzania
– found ancient tools and learned people had developed technologies
– found skull that was evidence of early hominids

Donald Johanson
-man who found early evidence of hominids
– found several pieces of a 3 million year old skeleton, named lucy
– could tell she was an upright walker

Australopithecines
– earliest hominid up to 7 million years old (3-5 feet tall)
– had smaller brains

Why do you think our human ancestors began to walk erect?
so they could eat, hunt, reach taller things, make tools, and see prey

homo habilis
– handy man
– first hominids to make stone tools
– used them to cut, scrape, saw, and chop plants and animals
– emerged 2 million years ago

Homo Erectus
– emerged 2 mill years ago
– had larger brains and bones and smaller teeth
– first to learn how to create fire and migrate
-created the ax
-upright man

Homo Sapiens
– wise man
– because they start to vocalize and develop language
– emerged 250-100 years ago
-upright walkers

theory of where Homo sapiens came from
– “out of africa”
-came from africa and migrated to other places
– or homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens

Neanderthals
– belonged to the homo sapiens group
-first humans to show emotion
-historians knew they had emotion bc they buried material things with the dead
– lived in Europe and Asia

Early Modern Humans
-lived all over world

all hominids before us…
disappeared 30-50 thousand years ago

how could historians tell if a body was buried or naw
buried: body was together
not buried: bones were scattered

Historians
-scholars who study and write ab the past
-learn by studying artifacts

what do historians rely on?
written evidence (primary sources) to determine how people lived in past

How are historians like detectives
-try to get evaluate and interpret evidence of the past and reconstruct it to try and explain events
– explain the past to help us better understand events today and in the future

When did recorded history begin?
5,000 years ago, when people began living

Today what type of evidence do historians study?
films, written documents, etc.

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