Homogeneous Aqueous Systems

why do you not often find pure water in nature?
it dissolves many substances
water that contains dissolved substances
aqueous solution
are solutions homogeneous mixtures?
yes
are solutions stable or not stable?
stable
the dissolving medium in a solution
solvent
dissolved particles in a solution
solute
what can solute particles be?
atoms, ions, or molecules
what is the average diameter of solute particles?
less than one nm (m to -9)
what becomes dispersed in the solvent?
the solute
what can solutes and solvents be?
gases, liquids solids
what will flow through a flter in a solution (solute dispersed in solvent)
both solvent and solute (because of the small diamter of solute particles)
substances with what types of bonds dissolve most readily in water?
ionic compounds and polar covalent bonded substances
molecules with what type of bond do not dissolve in water?
nonpolar covalent molecules
what are three examples of nonpolar compounds
oil, grease, gasoline
what breaks apart solute ions in a solid in the solvent water?
water molecules constantly in motion
why are water molecules constantly in motion?
their kinetic energy
what happens when individual solute ions break away in a water solvent?
the ions become surrounded by solvent molecules
a process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves; in solution, solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions
solvation
what ions will attract to the hydrogen side of water molecules?
negative ions
what ions will attract to the O side of water molecules?
positive ions
why are some ionic compounds nearly insoluble?
the attraction between the solute ions is stronger than the attractions from the water molecules
like dissolves what?
like
what will dissolve in a nonpolar covalent solvent?
a nonpolar covalent solute
a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolytes, but most covalent compounds are not
electrolyte
what do ions have to be in order to conduct electricity?
mobile
why are all ionic compounds electrolytes?
the dissociate into ions
when does a non soluble ionic compound conduct electricity?
only in the molten state (not aqueous)
a compound that does not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state
nonelectrolyte
why are many molecular compounds nonelectrolytes?
the are not composed of ions
what happens to some molecular compounds when in the aqueous state?
they ionize and become electrolytes
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
strong electrolyte
what are three types of strong electrolytes?
soluble salts, inorganic acids, and organic bases
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
weak electrolyte
what are three types of weak electrolytes?
ammonia, organic acids, organic bases
a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to each formula unit
hydrate
what is in the middle of a hydrate equation instead of a +
a dot
are the forces that hold water molecules in a hydrate strong?
no
when is a hydrate efflorescent?
when it has a higher vapor pressure than the air
what happens when a hydrate efflorsces?
it loses its wtaer of hydration (crystallization)
what are hydrates that remove moisture from the air called?
hygroscopic
why do hygroscopic hydrates take moisture from the air?
they have low vapor pressures
how can a salt be returned to its anhydrous state?
by heating
how do you find percent H2O in a hydrate
mass of water (in mole mole hydrate)/ mass of one mole hydrate times 100 %
what are hygroscopic compounds that become wet when exposed to normally moist air called?
deliquescent
what happens to deliquescent compounds when they remove lots of moisture from the air?
they dissolve completely and form solutions
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