History U2 L8 Johnson’s Great Society

Civil Rights Act 1964
outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin. It created the Equal Employment Opportunity commission.

Economic Opportunity Act
law passed in 1964 creating antipoverty programs

Great Society
President Johnson’s goals in the areas of health care, education, the environment, discrimination, and poverty

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
law that changed the national quota system to limits of 170,000 immigrants per year from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 per year from the Western Hemisphere

federal program created in 1965 to provide low-cost health insurance to poor Americans of any age

federal program created in 1965 to provide basic hospital insurance to most Americans over the age of sixty-five

Warren Court
Supreme Court of the 1960s under Chief Justice Earl Warren, whose decisions supported civil rights

What problem did the Great Society address?

How did the Great Society attempt to fix problems?
through a series of government programs aimed at increasing people’s social freedoms

What other issues competed with the Great Society for federal funds?
a war in Vietnam

How did Johnson’s Great Society Programs change life for most Americans
They provided more opportunities for people at the bottom of the socio-economic ladder and helped reduce significantly the number of Americans living below the poverty line. They also increased environmental and consumer protections and supported the arts, public radio, and public television

Were there differences in the goals of hte New Frontier and the Great Society?
Great Society programs attacked poverty more aggressively than did those of the New Frontier. The New Frontier also focused on developing a U.S. space program, whereas the Great Society focused on improving arts and education

How do you think the immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 changed political activity in the nation?
The policies created new constituencies to which politicians had to respond

Why did some Americans feel that Supreme Court decisions during the 1960s considered only the rights of the poor?
People probably felt this way because the media focused attention on landmark decisions that addressed injustices being done to lower income Americans and minorities.

Define a “flexible response ” defense policy. How does this defense policy differ from Eisenhower’s defense policy
Unlike Eisenhower, Kennedy chose a policy of flexible response—one that prepared the U.S. to meet any type of conflict—that in addition to preparing the military for nuclear conflict, also aimed to equip U.S. forces for conventional and counterinsurgency conflicts. 2.

What was the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty? Why was it so important
The treaty, whose signatories The treaty, whose signatories agreed to end above-ground nuclear testing, was important because it took a small step toward reducing the danger of nuclear annihilation.

What was the Warren Commission? What were its findings?
The Warren Commission, which convened to conduct an official investigation into the Kennedy assassination, determined that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in committing the crime

What was the purpose of Medicare and Medicaid? Who led the campaign for this legislation and which legislation were they part of?
Medicare provides basic hospital insurance for Americans age 65 and over who receive Social Security. Medicaid provides basic medical services to the poor and disabled who are not eligible for Social Security. President Johnson led the campaign for these programs as part of the Social Security Act

What was the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965? Where did most of the new immigrats come from?
The act overturned the quota system established in the 1920s, which favored Western Europeans; most of the new immigrants came from Asia and from Latin America

How did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War?
Kennedy initially adopted a bold stance against the Soviet Union, and though he remained resolute, his approach became more tempered and thoughtful as he gained experience

What were the goals of Kennedy’s New Frontier?
to tackle issues of poverty, gender, and racial discrimination and to make sure that the Soviet Union did not outperform the United States in terms of scientific achievements

How did Johnson’s Great Society programs change life for most Americans
by reducing poverty and by reforming healthcare, environmental, immigration, and education policies; by passing legislation to protect consumers; by supporting the arts, public radio, and public television

How did the education legislation passed during the Great Society build upon the War on Povert’s education program?
Legislators used the success of the War on Poverty’s education program as a basis for continued education legislation and passed the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act to aid schools in poorer communities.

How did the issues surrounding East and West Germany contribute to Cold War tensions between the US & the Soviet Union
U.S. determination to retain influence over West Berlin, which lay entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany, angered Russian leaders, who responded by building the Berlin Wall.

The equal Pay Act of 1963 required that women be paid the same wages as men for “equal work”. Do you think this legislation had an effect on the passage of the Civil Rights of 1964
Yes; passing the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which affirmed women’s equality with men, probably made it easier to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which protected the rights of minorities who were discriminated against by people who believed themselves to be racially superior

In wahat ways might Johnson’s career as a teacher have made him award that the nation faced serious social problems that needed to be addressed and reformed?
As a former teacher, Johnson came face-to-face with socioeconomic problems in schools. With his prior knowledge and experience, he pushed effectively for such reforms during his presidency.

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