history ch 26 essay questions
What factors led to the collapse of the Ming dynasty? How did Manchurian invaders gain control of China? Examine the rise of the Qing dynasty. How did the Manchus view Chinese society and culture? In what ways were the Manchus influenced by Chinese traditions?
*Ming Collapse: late emperors isolated themselves in the Forbidden City, unaware of the struggles of the common people. – bad emperors, like Emperor Wanli, refused to cooperate in gov’t and meet with advisors. – when famine struck China, the already weak gov’t failed to organize relief efforts . peasants had nothing to eat but grass roots & tree bark . peasants organized revolts – while in north, the Manchu forces were invading. – rebels captured Beijing *Manchurian invaders gain control of China: migrated after the collapse of Ming Gov’t. – came from Manchuria, north of the Great Wall. – quickly populated the ungoverned land – turned to agriculture & settled in rich farm land – a chieftain, Nurhaci, stepped up, unified Manchu tribes into a centralized state, created a code of laws & organized powerful military forces . extended authority throughout China and seized control of Beijing in 1644. *Rise of Qing: due to Manchu military prowess & the support Manchus recieved from Chinese generals & Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. – Manchus leadership was protective of their culture, yet intellegent- allowing intermarriages between Manchus & Chinese – a lineage of well-educated, intelligent men ruled the early Qing dynasty- conquering land, encouraging trade, and allowing the empire to prosper *Manchus’ view on society & culture: accepted & adapted Chinese culture, yet forbade Chinese from traveling to Manchuria or learning their native language. – leaders studies Confucianism & sought to apply their teachings – kept many traditions from Ming Dynasty including: concept of the \”Son of Heaven\”, patriarchal authorities, and foot binding. * Manchus influence on China: Brought new custom: the Civil Service Examination. – allowed people the change class & social standing, which added optimism & hope back into society . opened doors of honor, power, and reward for commoners*
Examine the role of women during the Ming and Qing dynasties. How was foot binding representative of the changing social and gender worlds of China? Compare and contrast the situation in China to the role of women in other societies studied so far. Is there anything that could be compared to the representation of foot binding on women in the Chinese culture to todays society?
*Role of women: women played a lesser role than men because society was patriarchal. Women viewed as less important than men and were often objectified, rather that being looked upon as an actual human being. * Foot binding is a representation for or perception of attractiveness can be altered. During these times, girls, sometime young than eight, would end their innocent childhoods and enter into a life of pain and misery in order to be considered pretty. These girls would have their feet bound and broken in order to bend in an \”attractive\” manner. This process was not only extremely painful, but would cause disability which would last for the rest of their lives, or death from disease. Women of wealthier status often had an advantage because they were able to sacrifice the ability to walk correctly and work efficiently. Wealthy class women were able to have prettier feet through their lack of work, which allowed them to be more sought after, marry a more successful man, and stay rich. * A disgustingly similar situation exist today. Like during Ming & Qing China, the more attractive women are able to stay at the top. The only difference between then and now is how modern society define attraction. Today, many believe that lots of cleavage, a round butt, big lips and skinny hips are attractive. The wealthy can afford of boob jobs, butt lifts, botox, and liposuction demanded from society’s definition of pretty, therefore, like Ming & Qing China, the rich stay at the top.*