History and Systems Ch. 9

By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the
None of the choices are correct.
Watson’s approach to structuralism and functionalism was
a revolt.
Which of the following terms should be banned from psychology according to behaviorism?
All of the choices are correct.
For Watson, such subject matter as mind, consciousness, and images was
meaningless for a science of psychology.
Who argued that consciousness, as a concept, was an unprovable as the concept of the soul?
Watson
For Watson, introspection was
irrelevant.
For Comte, valid knowledge is that which is
objectively observable and social in nature.
The most important antecedent of Watson’s behaviorism was
animal psychology.
Who had a theory of tropisms?
Loeb.
For Loeb, a tropism is a(n)
involuntary forced movement.
For Loeb, if an animal’s response is forced by a stimulus, the
behavior requires no inferences about consciousness.
The white rat and the rat maze became staples of research in psychology in 1900 with the work of
Willard S. Small.
Watson’s dissertation was on
the conscious experience of rats.
An early African American researcher in comparative psychology was
Turner.
The Animal Mind, the first textbook on comparative psychology, was written by
Margaret Washburn.
Who wrote a paper on ant behavior that was highly praised by Watson?
Turner.
The “last stand” of mentalistic interpretations of animal behavior was the text ______ written by ______
The Animal Mind; Washburn.
After The Animal Mind, textbooks on comparative psychology focused on
learning.
Which of the following statements best describes the change that took place in animal psychology following the work of Romanes and Morgan?
The field became more objective as mentalistic terms were dropped from the descriptions of behavior.
According to Schultz and Schultz, “Whether dealing with mind or with behavior, it was not easy to be ______.”
An animal psychologist.
The particular contribution of Pavlov’s work to Watson’s behaviorism was Pavlov’s ______.
objective methodology.
Pfungst demonstrated that the apparent thinking ability of the horse Clever Hans was really due to the animal’s ability
head movements.
The case of Clever Hans served to
illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study animal behavior with proper control conditions.
Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect is similar to
Pavlov’s law of reinforcement.
The first doctoral dissertation in psychology to use animal subjects was that of
Thorndike.
In Thorndike’s early research, he worked with all of the following except
children.
Thorndike earned his Ph.D. in 1898 and after 1899 studied
All of the choices are correct.
An approach to learning termed ____ was developed by Thorndike.
connectionism
For Thorndike, learning is _____.
making connections.
The influence of Romanes and Morgan on Thorndike was shown in Thorndike’s _____.
use of mentalistic processes.
Thorndike’s approach was similar to that of structuralism in his focus on
mechanism.
Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior?
Thorndike
The puzzle box is traditionally associated with the work of
Thorndike
Thorndike used ______ measures of learning to record his data.
quantitative
Thorndike’s “trial and accidental success” learning is more commonly known as ______ learning.
trial-and-error
Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of
Thorndike’s law of exercise.
Thorndike’s ideas about the stamping in or stamping out of a response tendency led to his statement of
the law of effect.
Who first demonstrated that reward had a stronger effect than punishment?
Thorndike
Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that
punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection.
The “original” law of effect states that
any act that produces satisfaction is more likely to occur again; any act that produces discomfort is less likely to occur again.
Thorndike’s particular contribution to behaviorism was his focus on
the experimental method.
Pavlov’s work effected a change in focus from _____ to observable physiological events.
subjective speculation about associationism
Whose work has been described as “a shift from speculation to experimentation?”
Pavlov
What led Pavlov to shift from a study of theology to that of animal psychology?
Darwin’s theory
Who could be described as an absent-minded genius?
Pavlov
The term “psychic reflexes” reflects
Pavlov’s early inclination to use mentalistic terms.
Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require _____ for learning to occur.
reinforcements and S-R connections
More than any other researcher in psychology before him, Pavlov attempted to
eliminate sources of error from his studies and implement the experimental method.
In the typical condition experiment done by Pavlov, the food placed in the dog’s mouth is called the
unconditioned stimulus.
For Pavlov, _____ is necessary for learning to take place.
reinforcement
Pavlov conducted research on
All of the choices are correct.
According to Pavlov in the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), his starting point in research was _____.
Descartes idea of the nervous reflex.
In the last half of the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), Pavlov discussed ____.
the building of what became known as the “Tower of Silence.”
While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ______ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.
Edwin Burket Twitmyer
If the 1904 APA attendees been more attentive, we might today speak of _____.
Twitmyerian conditioning
Which of the following is (are) true?
Both a and b.
Pavlov’s work illustrated the study of higher mental processes in _____.
physiological terms.
For Pavlov, humans and animals were _____.
machines.
Consistent with James’s views, Pavlov argued that ____.
psychology was not yet a science.
Pavlov’s view of psychology was _____.
initially negative, then somewhat favorable.
Which of the following statements is not true regarding Bekhterev?
Behkterev had a cordial relationship with Pavlov.
Bekhterev discovered ____.
the associated reflexes.
Bekhterev _____.
applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles.
Objective Psychology was authored by ______.
Bekhterev
Watson was not the first to demand an objective psychology and, according to one historian, _____ is considered the grandfather of Watson’s behaviorism.
Cattell
Who first defined psychology as the study of behavior?
Pillsbury
Angell proposed that the term consciousness had about the same life expectancy in psychology as the term _____.
soul.
Behaviorism was a protest against structuralism, not functionalism.
false
The founder of positivism was Comte.
true
One criterion of positivism is that knowledge must be private in nature.
false
According to positivism, inspective knowledge cannot be considered valid knowledge.
true
Animal psychology was an outcome of evolutionary theory.
true
The notion that single-celled organisms engage in purposive behavior was given by Wundt.
false
The advantage of Loeb’s concept of tropism was that consciousness was irrelevant.
true
For Loeb, if an S-R association is formed, then the organism has consciousness.
true
The rat maze was introduced in the research of Willard S. Small.
true
The author of “Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rat” was Washburn.
false
The first text on comparative psychology was by Margaret Washburn.
true
In the early years, animal psychology was discouraged because it appeared to lack pragmatic value.
true
The work of Skinner on intermittent reinforcement was anticipated by the conditioning of Clever Hans.
true
Thorndike argued that psychology should study behavior as well as conscious experience.
false
Most of Thorndike’s career was concerned with animal learning.
false
Thorndike posited that “The mind is man’s connection-system.”
true
Thorndike used the phrase “trail and accidental success.”
true
In his mechanistic approach to psychology, Thorndike discarded concepts of satisfaction and discomfort.
false
In anticipation of Skinner’s work on reinforcement schedules, Thorndike concluded that reward is as important as repetition of a response.
false
Pavlov was constantly conducting experiments as he insisted on his own hands-on involvement.
false
A revolution with fighting in the streets was no excuse for being late if you were one of Pavlov’s lab assistants.
true
Pavlov’s Nobel Prize was for his work on conditioning.
false
Pavlov’s original term for learned responses was “psychic reflexes.”
true
In Pavlov’s terms, the conditioned reflex is dependent on the formation of an association.
true
Pavlov changed his terminology for a learned response from “psychic reflex” to “conditioned reflex.”
false
While the cartoon character Superman has his Tower of Silence, Pavlov had his laboratory called the Tower of Solitude.
false
In Pavlovian conditioning, reinforcement is not essential.
false
E.B. Twitmyer was the first to describe classical conditioning.
false
The crux of Pavlov’s work on conditioning was that higher mental processes could be studied in physiological terms.
true
The element of Pavlov’s work most readily appropriated by Watson was the conditioned reflex.
true
Bekhterev’s work is distinct from Pavlov’s in the former’s focus on voluntary motor responses.
false
Bekhterev’s discoveries concerned associated reflexes.
true
V.M. Bekhterev wrote Objective Psychology.
true
Watson was the sole proponent of a “science of behavior” prior to his 1913 paper on the subject.
false
By 1910, it was expected that mind would soon become as irrelevant to psychology as the concept of the soul.
true