Reflection Essay on His 1-7

Flashcard maker : Jose Escobar
Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe’s view is known as
imageless thought
Wundt’s term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the
power of the will to organize the contents of the mind
Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics?
intensity, duration, and sense modality
In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could
not pay attention to two things at once
While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?
Ebbinghaus
The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to
Brentano
Stumpf’s method of observation was
phenomenology
Research suggests that many psychology historians consider ____ to be the most important psychologist of all time.
Wundt
Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings?
pleasure/displeasure; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression.
Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt’s experimental conditions?
Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences.
Stumpf and Wundt engaged in a bitter fight over the topic of
the introspection of tones
The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of
apperception
In Wundt’s laboratory, introspection was used to assess
immediate experience
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
consciousness
Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that
material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down
Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt’s approach, claimed that psychology should
study mental processes or functions and not mental structure
Wundt’s system is most accurately identified as
experimental psychology
Given that many of his research findings remain valid today, ____ can be seen as more influential than ____
Ebbinghaus; Wundt
Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he
successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory
Brentano’s system of psychology was called ____ psychology
Act
Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because
they were influenced by language and aspects thereof
This person was influenced by Fechner’s rigid and systematic use of measurement in developing his own methods for researching higher level cognitive processes.
Hermann Ebbinghaus
For Brentano, the primary research method was
observation
For Wundt, feelings are
based on three dimensions including pleasure/displeasure
According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely
sensation and feelings
The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables was to
control for previous learning
Wundt’s modification of introspection was the
use of experimental controls
____ work on ____ was the first \”venture into a truly psychological problem area\” rather than on physiology.
Ebbinghaus’; learning
The first system or school of thought in psychology was called ____.
voluntarism by Wundt
Which of the following methods is defined as \”the examination of experience as it occurred without any attempt to reduce experience to elementary components.\”
Phenomenology
The ultimate fate of Wundt’s laboratory at Leipzig was that it ____.
was destroyed by allied bombing raids in World War II
Wundt’s most important contribution to psychology was ____.
All of the above
The significance of Ebbinghaus’s work is in his ____.
rigorous use of experimental control and his quantitative analysis of data
Wundt’s theory of feelings was based on ____.
his own introspections
Titchener noted that the first significant advance in the study of learning since Aristotle was ____.
the development of the nonsense syllable
Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its ____.
use of the experimental method
The psychological study of music was pioneered by ____.
Stumpf
In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in ________.
physiological psychology
Wundt’s productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged ________.
2.2 pages a day for over 50 years
Wundt’s observers used introspection to report ________.
judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli
Wundt’s doctrine of apperception refers to ________.
the process of organizing mental elements into a whole
Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because ________.
it was not seen as having practical value
Ebbinghaus measured the rate of human learning by ________.
counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material
Other than Stumpf’s research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been ________.
educating the founders of Gestalt psychology
Systematic experimental introspection involves ________.
retrospection and the performance of a complex task
Which of the following works were most influential in the development of functionalism?
.
The work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research
Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah’s ark?
There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat.
The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the ________.
e. fact of variation among members of the species
In the study of finches’ beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that ________.
c. All of the choices are correct
The influence of Darwin’s work can be seen most directly in ________.
b. comparative psychology
The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of ________.
a. eugenics
Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
c. Galton
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ________.
d. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult
According to ________, animals have no soul and thus are automata.
b. Descartes
Despite Romanes’s deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his ________.
c. stimulation of the development of comparative psychology
Darwin’s position on Lamarck’s idea that changes due to experiences can be inherited was the ____ of Lamarck’s ____.
acceptance; doctrine
The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____.
Morgan
To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method?
the questionnaire
Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____.
acuteness of the senses
A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by ____.
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
Darwin’s ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin’s work was his ____.
hard data to support such a theory
____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.
jean-Baptiste Lamarck
The most important consequence of functionalism was ____.
The development of applied psychology
Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed?
Quetelet
Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are ____.
The mean and the standard deviation
Who wrote Hereditary Genius?
Galton
In a public debate on evolution, ____ refuted the points made against evolution by ____.
Huxley; Wilberforce
____ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory.
Lyell
Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to ____.
Huxley
Today, our acceptance that the study of individual differences is appropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work?
Galton
The ____ ask, \”What’s the mind made of?\” whereas the ____ demand, \”What does it do?\”
structuralists; functionalists
The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____.
Darwin’s evidence
Despite Romanes’s deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his ____.
stimulation of the development of comparative psychology
The intent of Lloyd Morgan’s canon was to ____.
make comparative psychology more scientific
Who arrived at the concept of the \”average man\” to describe findings from a large group of subjects?
Quetelet
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt’s system, including ________.
apperception
One of Titchener’s most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication ________.
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905)
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing \”a very old fashioned standpoint\” in excluding women from psychology meetings?
Ladd-Franklin
By the 1920s the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.
existential
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener’s psychology?
All the choices are correct.
Substantial doubts about and attacks on introspection ________.
existed long before Titchener used the method
Ordinary words such as \”table\” were not to be used by Titchener’s introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to ________.
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of ________.
retrospection
As more and more students became drawn to Titchener’s lectures at Cornell, he ____.
became less actively engaged in laboratory research.
In addition to introspection, another criticism of Titchener’s system was its ____.
artificiality and sterility
Titchener’s research identified three elements of consciousness: sensations, affective states, and ____.
images
The school of structuralism includes the work and/or systems of which of the following?
Titchener
According to the textbook, a significant contribution of structuralism was ____.
its service as a target for criticism
Titchener’s descriptors of sensations did NOT include which of the following?
propensity
The two most important contributions of Titchener’s system to modern psychology are ____.
his experimental method and a strong position to protest
Toward the end of Titchener’s career, he came to favor the ____ method instead of the ____ method.
phenomenological; introspective
Who was Titchener’s first doctoral student?
Washburn
In their evaluation of Titchener’s theoretical viewpoint toward the end of his career, Schultz and Schultz conclude that he was ____.
as flexible and open to change as scientists are supposed to be
Who defined the subject matter of psychology as being a conscious experience as that experience is dependent on the person who is actually experiencing it?
Titchener
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener’s definition of ____.
consciousness
In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to ____.
be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind
Feelings or emotions lack clearness because ____.
if we focus on them to determine clearness, the feeling or emotion disappears.
Titchener’s graduate student observers were instructed to ignore certain classes of words called ____ words.
meaning
To confuse the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed was to commit ____.
stimulus error
When Titchener returned to Oxford with his doctorate from Wundt, his colleagues ____.
were skeptical of the use of scientific approaches to philosophical questions
Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was ____ to them.
kind and helpful
In his treatment of women, Titchener ____.
demonstrated both support of and obstruction of women in psychology
____ was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
One of the main reasons that Titchener’s thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener ____.
translated Wundt’s books from German into English
Subjects in Titchener’s laboratory were asked to ____.
All of the choices are correct
Titchener’s definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is ____.
conscious experience
Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because ____.
these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind
For Titchener, distinct sensations combined with others to form ____.
perceptions and ideas
When Titchener died, the era of structuralism ____.
collapsed
Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women:
were too pure to smoke.
Titchener argued that psychology is unique among the sciences because ____.
psychology alone is dependent on experiencing persons
The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener’s definition of ____.
mind
Who was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association?
Hall
Who coined the phrase \”survival of the fittest\”?
Spencer
Which of the following statement expresses the James-Lange theory of emotions?
Physiological arousal precedes the experience of an emotion
Who was the earliest to argue that the mind exists in its present form because of past and present efforts to adapt to various environments?
Spencer
Who disliked the constraints imposed by membership in any school of thought?
woodworth
According to Spencer, the universe operates in accord with ____.
the principle of the survival of the fittest
An elaboration of the obvious\” was James’s description of ____.
Psychology
That nasty little science\” was James’s label for ____.
Psychology
For James, choice and habit are different in that ____.
habit is nonconscious
The basic tenet of ____ is that the validity of an idea or conception must be tested by its practical consequences.
Pragmatism
Spencer developed synthetic philosophy, which was an attempt to ____.
use evolutionary theory as a way to understand any process that undergoes change and development
According to ____, the goal of psychology is to study how the mind enables and facilitates the adaptation of the organism to its environment.
Angell
The idea that men show a wider range of variations in physical and mental development than women and that the abilities of women are more clustered about the average is a definition of the ____.
variability hypothesis
Who arranged for Freud and Jung to visit and lecture in America?
Hall
The notion of analysis of consciousness is, in James’s view, the ____.
psychologist’s fallacy
Functionalism was most loudly criticized by the ____.
structuralists
The hallmark of Woodworth’s psychology was his ____.
focus on motivation
Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?
Hollerith
James described the manuscript of his book, The Principles of Psychology, as testimony to the fact that ____.
a \”science of psychology\” did not exist
Who originated the idea of social Darwinism?
Spencer
Who did Darwin call \”our philosopher\”?
Spencer
James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he ________.
studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology
Although it took twelve years to complete, ________’s great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt’s approach to psychology.
William James
William James used the term \”stream of consciousness\” to indicate ________.
that the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements
In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one’s learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by ________.
Calkins
Hollingworth’s research refuted ________.
the variability hypothesis
Hall’s Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in ________.
child development
The notion that children’s development reflects the history of the human race is the ________.
recapitulation theory
John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, \”The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology.\” What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?
Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is ________.
adaptive and essential for an organism’s survival

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