Hegemonic Masculinitys Role In Maintaining Patriarchal Power Sociology
Hegemonic Masculinitys Role In Maintaining Patriarchal Power Sociology

Hegemonic Masculinitys Role In Maintaining Patriarchal Power Sociology

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  • Pages: 8 (3854 words)
  • Published: September 25, 2017
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Sport is an country in which patriarchal power is at the same time contested and reproduced ( Messner, 1988 ; Sabo & A ; Messner, 1993 ) . Harmonizing to Messner ( 1988 ) , in an attempt to reaffirm white, middle-class, male domination in early nineteenth century America, organized athletics was constructed. The kingdom of athletics was considered to be a adult male ‘s sphere in which hegemonic maleness could be performed, assisting to maintain adult females and certain work forces ( i.e. , lower category, work forces of colour ) marginalized ( Messner, 1988 ) . When adult females began to come in into the male-dominated universe of athletics, patriarchal power and privilege were threatened as the binary gender system, which is indispensable for the care of patriarchate, was being challenged ( Duncan, 1992 ; Messner, 1988 ; Sabo & A ; Messner, 1993 ) . In order to procure male power, a recoil against adult females jocks was deployed ( see Faludi, 1991, for a more elaborate analysis of attempts to keep male power ) . Aided by the media, the usage of hegemonic maleness, which can be seen as an forming agent that naturalizes ( evident ) differences between work forces and adult females every bit good as heterosexualism, can be seen as a manner in which female jocks were subordinated both on and off of the athleticss field ( Bryson, 1994 ; Connell, 1987 ; Messner, 1988, 2002 ) .

Although many believe America has entered into a post-feminist epoch in which work forces and adult females are treated every bit, athletics is an country in which the diff

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erential intervention of adult females is evident. Indeed, aside from stuff inequalities ( e.g. , Thomas, 2009 ) , adult females, as a consequence of hegemonic maleness, continue to be oppressed in assorted ways. Using a feminist position, this article will explain the ways in which hegemonic maleness within athletics plants to continue male power while repressing female jocks. The recent media attending that Elizabeth Lambert received after moving sharply in a 2009 college association football lucifer will be analyzed as an illustration of the manner ( s ) in which female jocks continue to be policed.

Hegemonic masculinity-based on Antonio Gramsci ‘s construct of hegemony-is that which is the dominant signifier of maleness in a peculiar civilization at a given clip ( Connell, 1987 ) . Harmonizing to Connell ( 1987 ) , hegemonic maleness works to keep the power of the dominant members of society. As such, in America, hegemonic maleness is based on White, middle-class, heterosexual impressions of what constitutes “ manliness ” : aggression, individualism, power, strength, and force. Even though most work forces do non, and will ne’er, embody hegemonic maleness, society ‘s mostly undisputed credence of hegemonic maleness, and rejection and belittling of other signifiers of maleness ( e.g. , malenesss constructed and performed by cheery work forces ) and muliebrity, aid to reproduce White male power and privilege ( Connell, 1987 ) . Hegemonic maleness, with the aid of the media, can be seen to form the kingdom of athletics, guaranting that

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adult females continue to be subordinated, in two ways: Through the hypostatization of both the binary gender system ( e.g. , Messner & A ; Bozada-Deas, 2009 ; Lorber, 1993 ) and mandatory heterosexualism ( e.g. , Kolnes, 1996 ) .

Keeping the Gender Binary

Clarke and Clarke ( 1982 ) noted that athletics is an country in which differences between the sexes are made to look as innate and natural ( Clarke & A ; Clarke, 1982 ) . As male power is contingent upon the binary gender system, which constructs difference between work forces and adult females ( Jackson, 2005 ) , such naturalisation of ( looking ) difference between the sexes is necessary to uphold patriarchate. Indeed, if gender were genuinely performed on a continuum, doing it hard to separate between work forces and adult females, it would be much more hard ( though non impossible ) for work forces to keep power. Female jocks who challenge the innateness of such prescribed gender functions and public presentation, hence, work to destabilise male power and privilege ( Sabe & A ; Messner, 1993 ) . Hegemonic maleness within athletics ensures that gender differences ( which can be considered a societal concept ) continue to look as though they are natural, assisting to perpetuate patriarchate.

As explicated by Messner ( 1988 ) , since hegemonic maleness basically constructs athletics, it is no happenstance that the most popular American athleticss are those that require the most strength, tallness, and physical aggression. Through this lens, activities such as ice hockey, football, and hoops are deemed as “ existent ” athleticss, while athleticss such as figure skating and synchronised swimming, which require more traditionally feminine qualities such as coordination and grace, are devalued and marginalized. By valorizing the athleticss that cater to the utmost possibilities of the male organic structure ( as work forces on norm have more musculus mass and are taller than adult females ) , differences between work forces and adult females are made to look as innate. Additionally, work forces ‘s ( supposed ) laterality within the field of athletics is reified. If, on the other manus, athleticss that cater to the female organic structure ( such as long distance, cold H2O swimming ) received more acknowledgment, the impression ( s ) that work forces are 1 ) different than adult females ; and 2 ) dominant over adult females, may be dismantled-something that hegemonic maleness helps to forestall ( Messner, 1988 ) .

Another manner in which hegemonic maleness reproduces the binary gender system is through the employment of gender-modified athleticss. Indeed, if adult females were seen to be as aggressive, strong, and fearless as work forces ( masculine traits ) -and play athleticss every bit good as men-the binary gender system, and later male power, would be threatened. As such, many athleticss ( e.g. , lacrosse, hoops, ice hockey, gymnastic exercises ) have been modified, doing them more “ appropriate ” for adult females ( Cahn, 1994 ; Lorber, 1993 ; Theberge, 2002 ) . The chief intent of such alteration of athletics is to assist concept and reproduce differences

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