HBS Essay Questions

question

What is BMI and BMR? How do these help with assessing health and diet for an individual?
answer

Your BMI is your body mass index. You BMR is your basal metabolic rate. BMI is a scale that provides an indication of your overall body composition and fat. BMR is the amount of energy your body requires to perform its normal vital functions at rest. A higher BMI is generally associated with a higher BMR. BMI is calculated by dividing you weight in pounds by your height in inches and then multiplying the quotient by 703. A normal BMI is from 18.5 to 24.9. Anything below is considered underweight. Anything above is considered overweight and/or obese. BMR has many factors for determination. It can include your age, sex, body composition, and diet. The result will give you an indication of how many calories your body needs each day to perform simple functions such as breathing and digestion. If you have a BMI that is not in the recommended range, you can use your BMR to accurately determine the number of calories you need to consume each day to either gain or lose weight. 3,500 calories = 1 pound.
question

How does the kidney form urine?
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Blood comes from your heart and passes through your renal arteries to the renal capsule. It then moves to the renal cortex and into the nephrons through the capillaries. The blood moves into the Bowman’s capsules where water and impurities get pushed out. Then it passes through the glomerulus, renal tubules, and the loop of the henle to reabsorb glucose and water while excreting wastes like salt, bicarbonates, hydrogen ion, drugs, etc. The blood exits through capillaries to the renal vein, which returns the blood to the lungs for oxygenation. The separated waste and water (urine) moves through the renal pelvis and descends through the ureter, to the bladder, and finally to the urethra where it is excreted from your body.
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How does sleep apnea affect the respiratory system?
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Sleep apnea is a sleeping disorder that causes abnormal pauses breathing or abnormally low breathing during sleep. Each pause is called an apnea. In the most common form of sleep apnea (obstructive sleep apnea) breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite respiratory effort. It happens when the soft tissue at the back of your throat collapses and effectively blocks your airway. It can be a contributing factor in deaths caused by blood pressure, stroke, and heart related problems. The most serious implications of sleep apnea include an increased risk of high blood pressure, stroke, congestive heart failure, and sudden cardiac arrest.

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