Grammatical Ability and Literary Reading Comprehension: a Correlational Perspective

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PAREF Southridge Afternoon School GRAMMATICAL ABILITY AND LITERARY READING COMPREHENSION: A CORRELATIONAL PERSPECTIVE In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Fourth Year By John Brylle L. Bae March 06, 2012 The Afternoon School of PAREF Southridge School accepts this Research Paper: GRAMMATICAL ABILITY AND LITERARY READING COMPREHENSION: A CORRELATIONAL PERSPECTIVE from John Brylle L. Bae, after complying with the Oral Defense on March 06, 2012. Members of the Panel: __________________ _________________ ________________ Mr. Michael S. Matias Mr. Noel T.

Fortun Mr. Jigs T. Tadeo Thesis Adviser __________________ Mr. Rex Q. Alcaraz i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ii CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION)……………………………………………………………1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM…………………………………………………… 1 OBJECTIVES………………………………………………………………………….. 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………. 2 SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS………………………………………………………… 3 CHAPTER 2 (REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE)…………………………………. 5 CHAPTER 3 (METHODOLOGY)…………………………………………………………… 7 RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………………………………………. 7 INSTRUMENT USED AND ITS VALIDITY…………………………………………7

RESEARCH SUBJECT………………………………………………………………… 8 ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTUMENT…………………………………………8 STATISTICAL TREATMENT………………………………………………………… 9 CHAPTER 4 (DATA RESULTS AND ANALYSIS)……………………………………….. 10 RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………10 ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………….. 14 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………… 16 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………… 18 APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………………. 19 ABSTRACT ii This paper verifies the existence of the relationship between grammatical ability and literary reading comprehension.

The study rose due to the necessity caused by the conflicting findings by the previous scholars studying in the said topic and due to the current events happening in the Afternoon School like the sudden change of the Filipino coverage for the First Year level. After testing the 49 First Year respondents for grammar and literary reading comprehension and looking for their scores’ correlation, it was found out that there is indeed a relationship between the two but its degree is only low and, hence, insufficient to explain Afternoon School’s decision.

At the research’s end, the researcher recommends a continuation of study about the said topic but, this time, concerning the significance of the correlation between the two, which would necessitate utilization of advanced statistics. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One of the most debated issues in the field of Structural Linguistics is the relationship between grammatical ability and literary reading comprehension (O’Donnel, 1962).

The traditional notion of language teachers is that grammar is necessary in comprehending literary text but researches in the early 1900s consistently showed on the contrary. As a result, this idea was abandoned by teachers and focused more on other aspects or “stages” of literary reading like interpretative stage, critical thinking stage and creative stage. However, recent studies in Structural Linguistics are showing that the traditional perspective is valid and, hence, must also be considered seriously by Literature instructors. Therefore, there is a conflict between the premises and results.

On one side is the traditional view that grammar and literary reading comprehension are related while on the other side is the perspective that there is really no relationship or, if there’s any, the relationship is not that significant. This conflict is what this research will try to resolve. OBJECTIVES This paper aims to verify if there is a relationship between grammatical ability (kasanayang pambalarila) and literary reading comprehension (kasanayan sa pag-unawa sa binasang akdang pampanitikan) using the statistical concept of correlation. The paper would answer these subordinate questions: 1. Is the relationship between grammatical ability and literary reading comprehension applying and existing in the Afternoon School, more specifically, to the First Year-A. S.? 2. ) How strong is the relationship between the two variables? 3. ) 2 How much of the data follows the relationship? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is new in the Philippines, although in other countries, this is already common, especially those which concerns the competence in English language (Atienza, 1996). Some of the linguists who studied this abroad are Allen, O’Donnel, Sauer, etc. Their findings would be expounded later in the next chapter.

Therefore, this study will somehow serve as a breakthrough in the Filipino language research. For the first time, this will show that the relationship (if there is any) applies even to other language like Filipino. Aside from that, it can also be important because of the researcher’s observed innovations in the Filipino coverage in his school, PAREF Southridge Afternoon School. For the past 3 years, the Filipino subject, more specifically, Filipino I, revolved its discussion on komunikasyon (communication), mekanismo ng pagdanas (mechanism of experience) and some topics of similar nature, but for this year, there was a sudden change.

Instead of discussing those topics, Filipino I started its First Quarter with a review on grammar. This event, therefore, led to the researcher’s curious question of why did the Afternoon School decided to change the Filipino coverage in First Year level? And the researcher assumed that the answer to that is somehow related to the topic that he is discussing. Therefore, this research, on the researcher’s perspective, would also help to partially explain A. S. decision in changing the said coverage, although there are more other factors which led to that, which would not be part of this research.

Another subordinate benefit that can be brought by this research is to help the instructors and curriculum planners of Panitikang Filipino (Philippine Literature)who are looking for the effective skill(s) they need to acquire to improve their performance in their Filipino literature course. This can also aid the students who are struggling to perform better in their Philippine Literature class. 3 SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS The study would only cover First year students of the Afternoon School, the researcher’s assumed year level which first experienced a grammar review in their Filipino class since 2006.

The study would only focus on the relationship of grammar ability and literary reading comprehension. The grammatical ability would also be limited on the basic grammatical principles: the nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs (O’Donnel & Sauer, 1968). The text to be utilized for the literary reading comprehension will just be limited to an excerpt of Ibong Adarna stanzas 70-79 because this book is DepEd’s prescribed literary work in the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum for the respondent’s level.

The stanzas stated were chosen because, according to Mr. Angcos, the Filipino teacher of the First Year-AS students and the one assisting the researcher, this is not taken by the class yet. The instrument used for the Filipino grammatical test is only the Filipino sub-test National Achievement Test or NAT for 2006 and 2009. The other possible test where the researcher can rely for this purpose is the reviewer for college admissions like UPCAT.

But, since the research’s respondents were only First year high school students, choosing college entrance test reviewers would not fit them and would not achieve reliable results. The literary reading comprehension test was only a self-made test because the researcher cannot find any reliable multiple-choice test for the literary text used; hence he was forced to resort in making his own. Its validity, therefore, is not assured with great certainty due to the lack of skills and time for the researcher to consult books on how to make test reliable and valid, thus, “standardized”.

Both tests were approved by the researcher’s research teacher, the Filipino teacher of the respondents and the High School-Afternoon School Subject Coordinator. These approvals were the sole proof of the test’s validity due to the researcher’s absence of sufficient skills in making more credible proof. 4 5 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Structural linguists, as said earlier, are debating if there is indeed a relationship between grammatical ability and literary reading comprehension and, if there’s any, to what extent is this relationship.

The traditional notion says that there is not only a strong linear relationship existing, but also a strong causal relationship between the two, meaning, one variable is the cause of the other, or one is necessary for the other to work or exist. For years, this was widely accepted by many literature instructors as the foundation of their teaching. However, due to the advancements in statistics like the rise of the concept of correlation led scholars to verify this notion statistically.

One of the first scholars to do that, according to O’Donnel, was Franklin S. Hoyt in 1906. He tested the belief that one, grammar ability is necessary to comprehend any written text like literary text and oral text like speech and second, that it is also necessary in interpreting ideas embedded on those. He gave two tests to 200 first year high school students, one for grammatical ability and another for literary reading comprehension. He correlated them using the Spearman’s Rank and obtained a very low correlation coefficient of 0. 3.

He concluded in the end of his research that the relationship is very low and insignificant and, hence, the traditional notion might not be valid. To verify this, Louis W. Rapeer repeated what Hoyt did by also examining same number of respondents and utilizing the same statistical instrument and obtained similar result (0. 27). The next researches also showed consistent results as to Hoyt and Rapeer. These findings, as O’Donnel said, led to most of the Literature instructors to “abandon the teaching of formal grammar on the assumption that it produced no practical results”.

But the new findings that will succeed in the next years will prove that what the traditional notion states is really valid. 6 One of these findings is that of Le Fevre (1961). He did the same procedure as Hoyt and Rapeer did, however, he modified his grammatical ability’s test coverage. He just focused on the structure aspect of grammar called the syntax. The result was that there is a very high correlation between the two variables. Therefore, from this, he concluded that comprehending any text needs certain cues, and these cues “are provided by how a sentence is being structured”.

He added his speculation that the reason why the relationship between grammatical ability and literary reading comprehension in Hoyt and Rapeer’s study is due to the intervention of other aspects of grammar like morphology and phonology, which were also covered by Hoyt and Rapeer’s grammar test. Allen verified and affirmed this, but he added another claim: that the strong relationship with reading comprehension will still be maintained even if the aspect of parts of speech is included in the coverage of grammar.

He recommended that researchers try to widen the coverage of their grammar test to include what Allen and Le Fevre’s tests were able to cover but were included in Hoyt and Rapeer’s tests. Therefore, he proposed a re-verification of the accepted findings of Hoyt and Rapeer, and this was provided by O’Donnel and Sauer. O’Donnel and Sauer (1968) did another correlational analysis on the scores of the students in grammatical ability and reading comprehension tests. They broadened the coverage of the grammatical ability test, as Allen recommended, and used a different correlational approach.

Instead of using Spearman’s rank, they used Pearson product-moment coefficient, also known as the Pearson r because they said that the usage of Spearman’s rank in the previous researches was invalid because the data cannot be best expressed into ranks, or the data is not ordinal. After giving the test to the same number of respondents (200 first year students) and analyzing the result, they obtained a very low correlation coefficient of 0. 44, a conclusion which agrees to Hoyt and Rapeer found. From these findings, it is noticeable that the results were indeed conflicting, and, hence, the necessity to resolve this through this research paper. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter shall discuss the research design, the research’s subject, the instrument used and its validity, the research’s subject, the way how the instrument was used, and the way how the data were treated statistically to achieve the researcher’s purposes. RESEARCH DESIGN The research utilized the descriptive method. This kind of method discusses relationships, cause and effects, conditions, etc. (Best, Kahn, 1986). For the research paper’s case, it shall discuss a relationship: the relationship between grammar ability and literary reading comprehension.

INSTRUMENT USED AND ITS VALIDITY The instruments used are the following: an excerpt adapted from National Achievement Test for Grade 6 students 2007 and 2009 editions for the grammatical ability test and a self-made literary reading comprehension test. The researcher chose the Grade 6 NAT because the “basic skills” (from DepEd. gov. ph’s definition of NAT) covered by the said test are also the ones which are being reviewed in Filipino I in the Afternoon School. The researcher also chose to use the NAT for 2007 and 2009 because those two ditions contain the most number of grammar questions concerning the basic sentence parts: the nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs (O’Donnel and Sauer, 1968) from the series of NAT exams the researcher collected from a source. The literary reading comprehension test, on the other hand, is originally made by the researcher because he was not able to find a valid test which could best serve his purpose. Hence he was forced to resort in making his own. 8 The validity of the two instruments stated above is, again, not assured with great certainty.

Their only proof of validity is the approval given by the Filipino High School-Afternoon School Subject Coordinator, his research teacher and the Filipino teacher of the respondents. Beyond that, the tests’ applicability is in question. The actual copy of these two tests would be shown in the research’s appendix. RESEARCH SUBJECT The subjects of the research are the First year students of the Afternoon School only since their batch is assumed by the researcher to be the first batch to experience a grammar review for First year in the whole Afternoon School.

The researcher chose to give the test to all First year students of both section because, based on the computation in Slovin’s formula, the number of students needed to be sampled in a population of 49 students (the population of the whole First year) to reach the safe 5% margin of error is about 44 students. Since the gap of 5 students doesn’t really make a difference, then it is logical to just take all the students, and not just a portion of it. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT The tests were administered during the Filipino period of First Year A and B.

Their administration was just entrusted to Mr. Ricky C. Angcos, the Filipino teacher for both sections, due to the conflict in the schedule of the First year’s Filipino period and of the researcher’s own class schedule. The researcher just informed Mr. Angcos on the mechanics of the test: one: that the tests, combined, must only last for 25 minutes (maximum) so that the whole period would not be spent and hence, he could still conduct his own class, and second, that the students would not be provided of any answer sheet and, instead, they would just write their answers at ? engthwise, the front page of which is allotted for grammar test and the back of it would be allotted for the literary reading comprehension part. The validity of the time allotment, just like the tests’ validity in general, is not assured safely by the researcher. 9 STATISTICAL TREATMENT The researcher utilized Pearson r to determine the degree of linear relationship between the scores of the students in grammatical ability test and reading comprehension test. There is an emphasis on linear because Pearson r may not be able to determine other kinds of relationship which is not linear.

For example, there is a possibility that a relationship is parabolic, yet when Pearson r is used, the coefficient to be obtained will express that there is no relationship existing. He also utilized the coefficient of determination to determine how much of the data is explained by the relationship. The formulas for the two statistical computations are given below. r=SxySxxSyy where Sxy=xy-1/n(x)(y) Sxx=x2-1/n(x)2 Syy=y2- 1/n(y)2 Coefficient of determination=r2 10 CHAPTER IV DATA RESULTS AND ANALYSIS RESULTS The following are the scores for Grammatical Ability and Literary Reading Comprehension sample tests.

The student’s names were not included intentionally to keep confidentiality which the researcher promised. Grammatical Ability Scores (20 items)(X)| Literary Reading Comprehension Scores (10 items)(y)| 18| 8| 15| 10| 14| 7| 16| 9| 16| 6| 14| 7| 14| 8| 17| 7| 14| 8| 13| 9| 15| 6| 9| 7| 15| 8| 16| 8| 11| 7| 14| 8| 15| 4| 11| 6| 11| 6| 8| 6| 12| 9| 9| 7| 11| 6| 11| 8| 5| 2| 12| 8| 12| 8| 9| 11 4| 17| 9| 11| 5| 12| 9| 13| 8| 16| 9| 14| 7| 10| 8| 10| 8| 16| 8| 15| 8| 13| 6| 13| 8| 14| 8| 14| 8| 17| 10| 12| 7| 12| 5| 12| 9| 11| 7| 13| 9| 12| 8| Table 4. 1: List of Scores

The scores in Grammatical Ability Test were designated by the researcher as the independent variable (X) while the scores in Literary Reading Comprehension were designated as the dependent variable (Y) To determine the correlation coefficient we are looking for, we will utilize the general formula: r=SxySxxSyy Formula 4. 1: General Formula of Pearson product-moment coefficient First let’s look upon getting the variable S(xx). S(xx) can be obtained by the following formula: 12 Sxx=x2-1/n(x)2 Formula 4. 2: Formula for General Formula’s Variable S(xx)

To get the x, all we need to do is to find the sum of all the scores in our independent variable, in the research’s case, all the scores in Grammatical Ability sample test. To find the ? x2, we need to square each scores in the said test then sum all of them. The following results were obtained: Total number of population (n) = 49 students x| x2| 634| 8540| Table 4. 2 Results for Variables of S(xx) These would be the values we are going to substitute to formula 4. 2. S(xx)= 8540-(1/49)(634)2 S(xx)= 336. 82 (rounded off to 2 decimal places) * The formula for the second variable S(yy)is given below:

Syy=y2- 1/n(y)2 Formula 4. 3: Formula for General Formula’s Variable S(yy) y is obtained by finding the sum of all the scores in our dependent variable, that is, the scores in Literary Reading Comprehension test while y2 by squaring each of the Literary Reading Comprehension Test score and adding them up. The following is the summary of the results: y| y2| 361| 13 2779| Table 4. 3: Results for the Variables of S(yy) These values would be substituted to Formula 4. 3, as shown below: S(yy)= 2779-(1/49)(361)2 S(yy)= 119. 39 (rounded off to 2 decimal places)* Lastly, we will look for the value of variable S(xy).

The formula for this is shown below: Sxy=xy-1/n(x)(y) Formula 4. 3: Formula for General Formula’s Variable S(xy) We will just use the same x and y we used earlier for the Formulas 4. 2 and 4. 3. to obtain xy, we will multiply the score in Grammatical Ability Test to its corresponding score in Literary Reading Comprehension Test then add all of the resulting products. This only means that each of the student’s score in grammatical ability test would be multiplied in his score in literary reading comprehension test then the products for all the students would be added up.

The summary of these are shown at the table below: x| y| xy| 634| 361| 4771| Table 4. 4: Results for Variables of S(xy) These values would be substituted to Formula 4. 3 as shown below: S(xy)= 4771-(1/49)(634)(361) S(xy)= 100. 10 (rounded off to 2 decimal places) * 14 All of the resultant values for S(xx), S(yy) and S(xy) (those with asterisks) are summarized at the table below: Sxx| Syy| Sxy| 336. 82| 119. 39| 100. 1| Table 4. 5: Summary Table of Value of Variables of the General Formula These would be substituted to the General Formula given in Formula 4. and the results are summarized at the table below: Pearson r coefficient | Remark| r2| r2 in %| 0. 50 (rounded off up to two decimal places)| Low positive| 0. 25 (rounded off up to two decimal places)| 25%| Table 4. 6: Summary Table of the Final Results from the General Formula ANALYSIS After computing for the correlation coefficient and evaluating its strength, a correlation coefficient of 0. 5 was found out, as shown in the first column of Table 4. 6. A 0. 5 coefficient means that there is a relationship existing between Grammatical Ability and Literary Reading Comprehension.

But, its strength, going back to our correlation coefficient index in chapter 3, indicates that the relationship is low. It proves, therefore, the findings of Structural linguists in the early 1900s: that the relationship is only low. Also notice that the coefficient of determination obtained is only 0. 25 or 25%. This means that only 25% of the data obtained follows the relationship. If we will multiply this to the total number of our respondents, this is equal to 12 people. Therefore, only 12 data from 12 students of the total population of 49 students follow or determine the relationship, which is relatively small. 15 16

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS After the correlational analysis of the two variables (the grammatical ability and reading comprehension), the two variables are proven to really have a relationship, but in a low degree, a similar conclusion to that of O’Donnell, Sauer, Rapeer and Hoyt’s. In relation to that, it was also proven that only a small portion of the total population is being explained by the relationship. Due to this small degree of relationship, we can say, therefore, that the traditional notion of strong relationship is not true in the case of Filipino language and, also, in the case of the First Year-Afternoon School.

But again, due to some limitations, he is recommending for a continuation of the research for the said topic, but this time, it must revolve on the significance of the correlation obtained, to clarify and prove further the claims of the previous researchers and scholars. This will need the usage of advanced statistics. Aside from that, the researcher also recommends that the instrument used be improved. He thinks that the validity of the test might have affected the results, and, hence the correlation coefficient obtained because the test might not be applicable to the skills that the First Year Afternoon School students have.

As said earlier, the instrument used was only an excerpt of the National Achievement Test for Grade 6 for years 2006 and 2009. Upon using this, the researcher just lied on two simple assumptions that it will be valid because it is an accepted examination nationwide created, given and facilitated by the national government through the Department of Education, and it was approved by the Filipino Subject Coordinator himself. But, we must take into consideration that the said test only evaluates the basic skills required by the Basic Education Curriculum (B. E. C. ).

Public Schools follow this curriculum strictly but, for the case of the Afternoon School, which is a private non-sectarian school, it has an independence to follow it strictly or make its own curriculum for the teaching of Filipino. Given this therefore gives the possibility that the students of the Afternoon School might have advanced or backward skills than the skills expected to them by the B. E. C. Hence, it follows that the test might be invalid for the Afternoon School’s case and might not follow a normal curve, a statistical determinant if a test is valid or not.

Therefore, to ensure the test would become valid for the circumstances given in the said institution, the researcher recommends that instead of using an excerpt, it would be more reliable to make an original test for grammatical ability and literary reading comprehension. This can be done by consulting books about making a standardized test and seeking the help of linguistics and test-making experts. After completing this with the approval of the rightful authorities (e. g. Filipino Subject Coordinator, A. S. Principal), the test should be given first to selected students for a pre-test before facilitating the actual test.

The pre-test would ensure that the scores of the selected students would follow a normal curve and hence, valid. This will help the data to speak more accurately about the performance of the students on grammar and literary reading comprehension thus, to the main correlation coeeficient. These are the preliminary tasks which the researcher failed to accomplish due to lack of time, skills and resources. 17 17 Lastly, the next scholars who would study this topic are recommended to also investigate if there’s any causal relationship between the two using advanced statistics.

Doing this would give us a more precise view not only about the simple relationship between grammar and literary reading comprehension but also, this time, the cause-and-effect relationship between the two. Showing this would help to stimulate further the interest to research on the real relationship between these two fields which would eventually help us to have a clearer, much valid perspective about the real “harmony” between these important branches in Structural Linguistics. REFERENCES 18 Allen, R. (1964). Better Reading Through the Recognition of Grammatical Relations. Reading Teacher, XVIII. Best, J.

W. , Kahn, J. V. (1986). Research in Education. New Delhi, India: Nutsilab Books. Le Fevre, C. A. (1964). Linguistics and the Teaching of Reading. New York: McGraw-Hill. O’Donnel, D. (1961). The Relationship Between Awareness of Structural Relationship in English and the Ability in Reading Comprehension. Nashville, TN: George Peabody College for Teachers Press. Rapeer, L. W. (1913). The Problem of Formal Grammar in High School Education. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 125-137. Sauer, P. (1968). Fourth Grade Children’s Knowledge of Comprehension. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. 9 APPENDIX (THE SAMPLE TEST FOR GRAMMATICAL ABILITY, SAMPLE TEST FOR LITERARY READING COMPREHENSION, SAMPLE PAPERS OF RESPONDENTS) 20 Good day! This is Brylle of Fourth Year-Afternoon School, and I would like you to answer the following Filipino grammar proficiency questions below. Your responses would serve as aids for my analysis on the relationship between grammar ability and reading comprehension, which is the topic of my research paper. This test would only take 15 minutes (at the maximum). Your scores in this test would be kept confidential and would be used solely for analysis. Thanks for your time!

John Brylle L. Bae Fourth Year-Afternoon School @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Kasanayang Pambalarila (Grammatical Ability) Isulat sa ? lengthwise ang letra ng tamang sagot. Bilang 1-12, Piliin ang salita/mga salitang kukumpleto sa mga pangungusap. 1. Pinagmamasdan ng mag-asawa ang kambal nilang anak habang natutulog 3. Ang mag-anak ay palaging nagpapasalamat sa maykapal sa biyayang kanilang natatanggap _______ dako sila naroon. a. anumang c. kailanmang b. saanmang d. kaninumang 4. Ang halaga ng langis sa panahon ngayon ay pataas ng pataas _______ panig ng mundo. . anumang c. saanmang ________ mahimbing. b. alinmang d. ilanmang a. nang c. kasi 5. Laging maayos ang kabuhayan b. ng d. dahil ng pamilyang Asis ____ sila’y patuloy na nagtutulungan. 2. Sa mga nakaraang araw, patuloy ang pagtaas ng a. subalit c. dahil halaga ______ langis na b. kung d. kapag ating inaangkat mula pa a Gitnang Silangan. a. ng c. nang b. sa d. itong 21 6. Nagtungo ang pangulo sa Amerika _______ tanggapin ang alok na tulong sa ating bansa. a. at c. ngunit b. nang d. upang 7. Tuwang tuwa sa kanila ______ mga kapitbahay sa maayos nilang pakikitungo. a. na c. g b. ng d. o 8. Kaya naman, isang ______ rosas ang regalo nila para sa kaarawan ng magkapatid. a. pumpong c. tumpok ng b. dosenang d. kumpol ng 9.

Sa kasalukuyan, masasabing nasa kritikal na kondisyon ang presyo ng langis. Bunga nito, ________ ang halaga ng lahat ng mga bilihin. a. biglang humina b. talagang tumaas c. lalong tumumal d. lubhang humusay 10. Kung noong dekada ’90 ang halaga ng langis ay kaya pang tapatan ang halaga n gating piso, ngayon ay hindi na, dahil sa ________ taas nito. a. lalo na b. higit na c. sadyang d. sobra 11. Ang ating pamahalaan ay ______ kamakalawa sa bansang Amerika upang tayo ay makabangon sa ating ekonomiya. a. makipag-ugnayan b. nakipag-ugnayan c. makipag-ugnay d. nakikipag-ugnay 12. Maagang _________ si Gng.

Asis nang araw na iyon upang maghanda para sa kaarawan ng dalawang anak. 22 a. gigising c. gumising b. gigisingin d. gumigising 13. Alin sa mga pangungusap ang nagsasaad ng matinding damdamin? a. Pagbutihin nating magkaroon ng medalyang ginto b. Sana nga magkaroon tayo ng medalyang ginto c. Totoo nagkamit tayo ng medalyang ginto d. At sa wakas nagkamit tayo ng medalyang ginto 14. Ang ina ng tahanan, superwoman ng ating buhay! Siya ang nagsisilbing ilan an gating tahanan, wika ng isang manunulat. Ano ang angkop na bantas para sa pangungusap? a. Kuwit b. Tuldok c. Gitling d. Panipi 5. Kaylawak ng papel na ginagampanan ng isang ina; tagapag-alaga doktora kusinera labandera tagalinis kaibigan at taga-budyet ng gastusin. Ano ang angkop na bantas para sa pangungusap? a. Kuwit c. Gitling b. Tuldok d. Panipi Sa bilang 16-17, piliin ang panlaping dapat gamitin sa salitang ugat na nasa loob ng panaklong. 16. Ang palaro ay (ani) ____ ng tagumpay. a. ma- c. na- b. um- d. in- 17. Maisasakatuparan na rin ang planong (sustento) _______ ang pagpapaganda ng parke at basketball kurt. a. in c. –han b. –an d. –hin Para sa bilang 18-20, piliin ang angkop na salita. 23 18. Nangangasiwa ba si Percy sa palaro _______ siya ay isang manlalaro? a. at c. kaya b. o d. ngunit 19. Nang tanghaling kampeon si Manny Pacquiao nitong huling laban niya, nagbigay _______ siya ng tulong sa mga naging biktima ng bagyong “Frank”. a. rin c. din b. nga d. pati 20. Si Albino ay walong taong gulang na ___________________. . para bumili ng laruan b. at nais sumali sa laro c. ngunit hindi pa siya nakapaglaro ng basketbol d. kaya pwede na siyang sumali sa basketbol. -W A K A S- -Halaw mula sa NAT exam ng Ikaanim na Baitang para sa taong 2006 at 2009. 24 Good day! This is Brylle of Fourth Year-Afternoon School. This is a short reading comprehension test on Ibong Adarna, and I appeal to you to answer this. The result of your test would be used for the analysis of the relationship between Grammatical Ability and Literary reading comprehension. This test would only take you 10 minutes (maximum) to answer.

Again, just like your score in Grammatical Ability test, your score would be kept confidential and would be used solely for analytical purposes. Thanks for your time! John Brylle L. Bae Fourth Year-Afternoon School @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Kasanayan sa Pag-unawa sa Binasang Akdang Pampanitikan (Literary Reading Comprehension Ability) Basahin ang mga sumusunod na saknong mula sa Ibong Adarna at sagutan ang mga susunod na tanong. Isulat ang iyong sagot sa likod na bahagi ng iyong naunang ? lengthwise 70 Magparaan ng magdamag Sa umaga na lumakad, Pagod kasi, kaya agad Nagulaylay nang panatag. 71

Tila naman isang tukso’t Kasawian ni Don Pedro, Ang Adarnang may engkanto Dumating nang di naino. 72 Ibo’y marahang lumapag Sa sanga ng Piedras Platas Balahibo’y pinangulag Nagbihis na ng magilas 73 Sinimulan ang pagkanta Awit ay kaaya-aya, Kabundukang tahimik na Ay natalik sa ligaya. 74 Liwanag sa punongkahoy Nag-aalimpuyong apoy, Mawisikang daho’t usbong Nangabiting mga parol. 75 At lalo pang pinatamis Ang sa Adarnang pag-awit Bawat kanta’y isang bihis Ng balahibong marikit. 76 Pitong kanta ang ginawa’t Pitong bihis na magara, Natapos na tuwang tuwa’t Ang langit pa’y tiningala. 77 Ang lahat na’y di napansin

Ng Prinsipeng nagupiling Sa pagtulog na mahimbing, Patay wari ang kahambing. 25 78 Ugali nitong Adarna Matapos ang kanyang kanta, Ang siya’y magbawas muna Bago matulog sa sanga. 79 Sa masamang kapalaran Si Don Pedro’y napatakan Biglang naging batong buhay Sa punong kinasandalan. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ 1. Sino ang prinsipeng tinutukoy sa Saknong 77? a. Don Pedro b. Don Fernando c. Don Custodio d. Don Santiago 2. Ilang kanta ang ginawa ng Ibong Adarna? a. Pito b. Sampu c. Walo d. Wala sa nabanggit 3. Ano ang kaugalian ng Adarna matapos kumanta? a. Dumumi b. Lumipad c. Magtapon d. Wala sa nabanggit 4.

Naging ano ang prinsipe matapos makatulog sa awit ng Adarna? a. Nataihan b. Nawalan ng malay c. Naging batong buhay d. Wala sa mga nabanggit 26 5. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng salitang engkanto sa sinipi? a. Multo b. Hiwaga c. Salamangka d. nilalang na kakaiba 6. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng salitang nag-aalimpuyo sa sinipi? a. Naninigas b. Nagniningas c. Umiinit d. Wala sa nabanggit 7. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng nagupiling sa sinipi? a. Sumayaw b. Namatay c. Nakatulog d. Nawalan ng malay 8. Bakit nagulaylay ang prinsipe? a. Dahil sa pagod b. Dahil gusto niya makapiling ang kanyang amang hari c. Dahil may malalang karamdaman siya . Wala sa mga nabanggit 9. Bakit nakatulog ang prinsipe? a. Naiputan ng Ibong Adarna b. Nakarinig ng awit ng Ibong Adarna c. Nahilo d. Wala sa nabanggit 10. Base sa karanasan ng prinsipe sa sinipi, ano ang pinaka-angkop na hinuhang ating mabubuo tungkol sa Ibong Adarna? a. Mahirap nga mahuli ang Ibong Adarna. b. Ang mga ibong gaya ng Ibong Adarna ay sadyang mga tanga’t hindi sibilisado sapagkat sila’y umiipot kung saan-saan. c. 27 Kailangan muna ng kapangyarihan ng Diyos bago mahuli ang Ibong Adarna. d. Wala sa mga nabanggit. -W A K A S- 28 SAMPLE ANSWERED PAPERS FOR THE TEST 29 30 31 32

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