Gr. 8 Properties of Matter

The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.
Has a definite volume; definite shape; particles tightly packed and held together in fixed positions.
No definite shape, no definite volume; fills all available space in a container; is a fluid
Two or more substances mixed together, but not chemically combined; can be separated; ex. Chex Mix
A well mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout.
Ex. sugar dissolved in water is a solution.
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Has a definite volume; takes the shape of its container; called a fluid; particles touching, but can move around each other
Pure substance
A single kind of matter that has a specific set of properties. Ex. table salt
A pure substance that can not be broken down into anything simpler by chemical or physical means. Ex. anything on the Periodic Table such as Gold, Oxygen, etc.
A liquid’s resistance to flowing; the lower the viscosity, the quicker the flow. Water has a low viscosity; Honey has a high viscosity
Chemical Change
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances; you can’t get the original substance back;
ex. rusting, photosynthesis, burning
Crystalline Solid
A solid that is made up of crystals arranged in a regular repeating pattern. Ex. salt, snow, sugar, quartz
Heterogeneous mixture
A mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture. Ex. salad
A change in state from a gas to a liquid state of matter; ex. fog, clouds, bathroom mirror after shower
When a solid goes directly to the gas state without passing through the liquid state; Ex. ice cubes shrinking in the freezer
The process of a liquid changing state into a gas; Two types: Evaporation and Boiling
The part of the solution that dissolves the other substance
Physical Change
A change in matter that alters the appearance of matter, but does not make it a different substance; Ex. bending, dissolving, changing state, crushing. It remains the same substance, even though it looks different; broken glass is still glass
Amorphous Solid
A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern; they do not melt at a distinct temperature; Ex. plastic, butter
Homogeneous Mixture
A solution in which substances are so evenly mixed, you can’t tell them apart; ex. Kool-aid in water; hot chocolate
Law of Conservation of Matter/Mass
States that matter cannot be created or destroyed in any physical or chemical change; it can only be rearranged
A type of vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid; ex. a rain puddle shrinking
A type of vaporization that takes place throughout the liquid; Ex. Soup boiling in a pot on the stove. The bubbles you see is the liquid turning into a gas throughout the soup! Heat is required for boiling.
The part of the solution that is dissolved by the solvent; usually a solid, but may be a gas. Ex. the salt in ocean water is the solute
Saturated Solution
A mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as possible at a given temperature
Something that cannot dissolve
A pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined; CO2, H2O
Super Saturated Solution
Heating a saturated solution so that even more solute can dissolve in it.
Chemical Property of Matter
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance.
Ex. Flammability; reactivity; rusting, tarnishing
Physical Property of Matter
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance (e.g. density, melting point, texture, color, flexibility)
The change in state from a solid to a liquid; Melting Point is a characterist property of a substance. Ex. ice turning to water
The change in state from a liquid to a solid; Ex.water turning to ice
A mixture whose particles can be seen and easily separated; Ex. sand in water
To separate a mixture by using filter paper or a sieve
How well a solute dissolves at a given temperature
The material that is filtered out and remains in the filter paper. Ex. coffee grounds
Pouring off the liquid; Ex. Draining a can of tuna is decanting
Separation using vaporization
Evaporating or boiling off a liquid to get the other substances out of a solution
The process of tuning water into water vapor and then condensing it back into a liquid by cooling the vapor.(condensation) Distillation must take place in a closed system so all the water can be recovered.
Water Cycle
Recycles all the water on Earth;has no beginning or end; sun is the source of energy that drives the water cycle
Water vapor given off through the leaves of plants
Any form of water that falls from the sky; rain, snow, sleet, hail
Precipitation that “runs off” into bodies of water such as lakes, rivers or oceans
Precipitation that seeps into the cracks and spaces in soil and rock layers
% of water on Earth that has salt in it
About 97% (96.5%)
% of water on Earth that is fresh
About 3% (2.5%)
% of FRESH water on Earth that is actually drinkable
Less than .5%
% of the Earth’s surface that is covered by water
71% or close to 3/4ths of the Earth’s surface
The universal solvent
Water is the universal solvent because more things dissolve in it than anything else
Ways to speed up the rate of dissolving
Stir it; Shake it; Heat it; Make the particles of solute smaller by crushing