Global Citizenship Nationalism Essay

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Thesis
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National and nation-state identities create conflict within individuals, between people, and between countries through personal identity crisis of retaining national identities or conforming to larger nation-state identities, differing views that create opposition between opposing parties, and the fueling of war violence, respectively.
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Paragraph 1: Conflict Within Individuals
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Claim Statement National and nation-state identities create conflict within individuals through personal identity crisis between retaining national identities or conforming to larger nation-state identities. Chunk 1 Data Prior to the twentieth century, the Kurdish majority lived under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled from 1288 to the end of World War I; Under this rule, Kurds were allowed freedom of expressing their native language and culture, but after the fall of the empire, Kurds were dispersed into small minorities among five different countries and freedom to move about Kurdistan as a whole was revoked. DSV: Ottoman Empire, Kurds Commentary 1 Under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, the ruling entity that controlled most of the Middle East from 1288 to the end of World War I and is now present-day Turkey, Kurds were allowed to maintain their shared culture and heritage, therefore promoting a nationalistic identity; However, the dispersing of Kurds into minorities subtracts from the political and societal influence of the group and causes Kurds to stick out in their new societies. Commentary 2 The limiting of the freedom to move about Kurdistan, combined with the dispersing of Kurds, serves to oppress power and shared nationalistic identities of the Kurdish people, as power and a group identity comes from the strength and feeling of belonging of a group; This serves to cause personal identity crisis for Kurdish people, as they must make the conscious decision to conform to societal norms of their new nation-states at the sake of their national identity or attempt to retain their national Kurdish identity at the expense of identifying with their nation-state. Chunk 2 Data Currently, Kurds are poorly treated by other Arabs and authorities, who often exploit and attack these people despite the fact that some Kurds share the common Sunni religion and are thereby included in the Muslim religious majority (as 85% of the world’s muslims are Sunni); As a result of this, Kurds banded together in an attempt to gain political autonomy and plan for an independent Kurdistan. DSV: Umma Commentary 1 Underneath such authorities, Kurds are pressured to give up their cultural identity in lieu of conformity to the larger society due to the fact that their shared differences are a point off of which they are isolated by authorities and punished through exploitation and violence. Commentary 2 Additionally, common religion such as Sunni Islam, whose followers make up 85% of the world’s Muslims, still does not hold as a reason for authorities and other Arabs to accept Kurds, even despite the umma, the supposed sacred communities of Muslims described in the Koran as being bound together by ties of common religion; such exploitation for their differences places Kurds in the hard position of making the choice to either identify themselves with their Kurdish nationalistic identity and band together with other Kurds on a crusade for independence only to face reciprocations by authorities, or to conform to the larger society in which they live and identify themselves based on the society of their nation-state. Warrant Statement In conclusion, the national and nation-state identities create conflict within individuals such as Kurds through the personal identity crisis of retaining national identities or abandoning them in lieu of conformity to the general nation-state identity. Par 2 Claim Statement National and nation-state identities create conflict between people through differing views that create opposition between opposing parties.
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Paragraph 2: Conflict Between People
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Claim Statement National and nation-state identities create conflict between people through differing views that create opposition between opposing parties. Chunk 1 Data After Syria’s independence from France in 1946, control of the government was taken over by military leader Hafez al-Assad, a member of the Alawite Sect, and recently, the 15% Alawite minority of Syria has come to dominate governmental positions; As a result of such leadership, many Sunni Muslims have joined organizations such as the Muslim Brotherhood (which calls for the return of fundamentalist Islam) that have sprung up to publicly challenge the government (Profile 7). National: Desire certain Independence from current government DSV: Commentary 1 Sunni Muslims, or adherents of the Sunni Muslim branch, believe in secularization of the government, which entails separation of religion from politics; However, growing numbers of Sunni Muslims now desire for a fundamentalist Islamic government, as the clear trend of Alawite leadership (Hafez al-Assad and other Syrian political figures) already opposes the Sunni secular view (supporting instead the Shi’ite belief that religion should play a role in all parts of life) and Sunni Muslims are getting the bad end of the deal as they are not well represented in the government. Commentary 2 Additionally, the top leadership role is filled by a militant rather than a civilian, which is angering to some Sunni Muslims and civilians in general as a militant is further removed from the local citizen’s dilemmas and therefore is less likely to take actions to fix such problems; Opposing views of secularism, how and which sect of religion should dominate the government, and of militant leadership results in the formation of groups such as Muslim Brotherhood, with many Sunni Muslims identifying themselves nationalistically rather than by the identity of their nation-state, fighting for a certain independence and reform in their current government. Chunk 2 Data Following the leadership of Baath member Hafez al-Assad since 1970, Syria has supported Iran, a non-Arab state, in the Iran-Iraq war in lieu of supporting the Arab state of Iraq; Such actions spark unrest among other promoters of Arab nationalism, and to maintain a governmental and leadership status, Assad has resorted to violence to control opposition. DSV: Baath Party, Arab Commentary 1 The Baath Party, a pro-Arab political party in Syria, entails the giving of aid to other Arabs as a promotion of their motto of Arab nationalism, socialism, and unity; However, Hafez al-Assad, Syria’s governmental president and supposed Baath member, does the opposite when given such an opportunity and decides to provide support to the non-Arab state of Iran over the Arab state of Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war. Commentary 2 For many passionate advocates of Arab nationalism, this is an angering occurrence, as choosing to support an non-Arab state over an Arab one is a decision that not only reflects back on Hafez al-Assad but on the people of Syria, as Assad is a political leader meant to represent the entire population of Syria in his interactions with other nation-states; Such actions spark unrest and opposition, causing Assad to retaliate with violence and indicating that conflict occurs from the opposing views of the nationalistically-identifying crusaders that struggle in a common fight for reform and the current nation-state identifying governmental figures that struggle to maintain control over groups pushing for liberation from its oppressive power and change in its unevenly placed power distribution. Warrant Statement In summary, national and nation-state identities create conflict through differing views (such as secularism, political power distribution in relation to religion, and supporting of non-Arab states) that create opposition between opposing parties (an example of which includes crusaders that rise up to challenge the Syrian government and current Syrian political figures). Par 3
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Paragraph 3: Conflict Between Countries
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Claim Statement National and nation-state identities create conflict between countries through war violence. Chunk 1 Data In response to Kashmir’s plea for help, India provided military support to Kashmir to fight off a growing Pakistani-backed Muslim insurgency, and in return, Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to Kashmiri accession to India; this assistance sparked the first Indo-Pakistani War in October 1947. DSV: Muslim, Commentary 1 To avoid control under Pakistan and its Islamic religion (the religion that claims that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s prophet) through an internal breach of Kashmiri government, Maharaja Hari Singh turned to the nation-state of India for support and eventually agreed to voluntarily accede Kashmir to India in return for such help; this desire to maintain independence (or in this case, the closest viable option, to accede voluntarily) rather than have independence snatched away through internal overthrowing of the government exhibits a Kashmiri nationalistic identity. Commentary 2 However, such a nationalistic identity, which is in conflict with the nation-state identity of Pakistan (the strong, self governing entity looking to gain control of Kashmir) results in war violence between Kashmir’s ally, India, and Pakistan, leading to the first Indo-Pakistani War during October 1947. Chunk 2 Data Now, a growing number of citizens in Kashmir (a predominantly Islamic state constantly disputed between Pakistan and India and located along the border of the two countries) desire independence from current Indian rule and wish to join Pakistan on the basis of a common religion; Such desires result in Kashmiri violence in 1989, during which militants in Kashmir began armed resistance against Indian rule. DSV: Islam Commentary 1 Growing numbers of Kashmiri citizens desire independence from Indian rule so that they might accede to Pakistan and share the common Islamic religion with the majority of Muslims (followers of Islam) in Pakistan; such a desire for independence for a common cause shows an association to a nationalistic identity. Commentary 2 This nationalistic identity, when in conflict with the nation-state identity of India (who desires continued control over Kashmir since the Kashmiri accession to India under Maharaja Hari Singh) results in war violence, as militants attack Indian authorities in their fight for independence. Warrant Statement In conclusion, national and nation-state identities (such as the nation-state identity of Pakistan and India, which both desire control over Kashmir, and the nationalistic identities of Kashmir and pro-Muslim Kashmiri citizens, who desire independence and freedom to accede to Pakistan, respectively) create conflict between countries through fueling of war violence (such as the first Indo-Pakistani War and armed resistance of Kashmiri citizens against Indian rule).

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