Given Danziger’s Claims Essay Essay

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Given Danziger’s claims about ‘methodomorphic theories’ and given what you know of quantitative and qualitative research methods and psychological science in general. what do you believe would be the obstructions to try to interrupt free of the ‘methodological circle’ ?

Research methods in modern psychological science offer a assortment of methodological options for research workers to use. However. there are issues associated with all methods. This essay will analyze jobs associated with the ‘methodological cycle’ . such as the monopolization of statistical methods in societal scientific disciplines. These ‘issues’ continue to be common pattern in psychological research and present obstructions to traveling towards a less stiff. constrained method of working. This will be followed by researching attacks that move frontward. towards a more unstable and inclusive method of empirical psychological science. such as Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory and Relational metatheory.

Danziger coined the term ‘methodological circle’ . asseverating that many psychological research workers adopt methods based on certain premises about the capable affair. which in bend “only produce observations which must corroborate these assumptions” ( Danziger. 1998. p 1 ) . These premises continue to be common pattern in current psychological research. and pose as a barrier to traveling off from the ‘methodological circle’ .

Psychology as Pure Science

Kuhn ( 1962 ) described “ordinary science” as affecting treatment of debatable truth claims and is carried out within the context of implicitly shared metatheoretical models ; on the other manus “paradigms” involve treatment that challenges these metatheoretical models themselves. Psychology operates within both of these models.

‘Ordinary science’ . besides known as Scientism. involves uncritically accepting that scientific discipline is both extremely distinguishable from. and superior to. ‘common sense’ and methods for placing cultural forms. However. factors that a societal scientist may wish to analyze make affect aspects that are non inactive and are defined by the context in which these aspects operate. An illustration of this could be trauma. Trauma is viewed by persons in Western society as a construct which persons or a corporate may endure after a disrupting or straitening event. However. in less developed societies. such as in Rwanda which suffered mass race murder. no cases of injury are reported ( Alexander et al. 2004 ) . Such illustrations highlight the jobs presented by following a strictly scientific ( rationalist ) attack to a societal phenomenon.

In add-on to this. it must be remembered that even though research will ever endeavor to be every bit nonsubjective as possible they will. finally. utilize their common-sense cognition of how societal phenomena operate in order to specify and mensurate these variables for precise probe ( Silverman. 1993 ) . Psychologists who work strictly in line with Scientism make the mistake to wholly take itself from common sense. instead than admiting and working with it. following. state. a more constructivist attack e. g. Conversation Analysis. Kock ( 1973 ) amounts this up premise attractively by stating “The full subsequent history of psychological science can be seen as a ritualistic enterprise to emulate the signifiers of scientific discipline in order to prolong the psychotic belief that it already is a science” ( Kock. 1973. p. 66 ) .

Dependence on statistics

The usage of statistical methods in psychological science can be said to hold become “institutionalized” ( Danziger. 1998. p. 4 ) . Harmonizing to Danziger. such institutionalization nowadayss 3 chief jobs: 1. It assumes that statistical decisions are the lone agencies of supplying dependable and valid consequences for construing and developing theory ; 2. It asserts that certain regulations and theoretical accounts are changeless. and can non be amended or updated by new grounds ; 3. it postulates that methodological analysis must take theory formation. and non the other manner unit of ammunition. Such aspects create a stiff environment. which restricts ways in which the societal scientist can research societal phenomena which focuses on interactions between figures instead than significances of interactions.

The importance of the significance behind words was acknowledged as far back as Freud. who stated “In trefoils you are accustomed to see things…in depth psychology. alas. everything is different…Words were originally charming and to this twenty-four hours words have retained much of their ancient power…Words provoke affects and are in general the agency of common influence among men” ( Freud. 1918. p. 12 ) . This statement emphasises the importance in non merely. say. open behavior in the sum of words one uses ( i. e. numerical informations ) in an interview. but besides what one says and the significance behind those words ( i. e. qualitative informations ) .

Artificial scenes to mensurate existent life

Psychology is the scientific discipline of the existent life. can non be manipulated in unreal theoretical accounts. In its effort to go a ‘pure’ scientific discipline. psychological research methods tend to prefer to utilize controlled. experimental processs. where one variable is straight manipulated by another variable. commanding for any other influencing factors. While such methods offer elaborate and dependable statistical information. inside informations of societal. political. economic. and historical contexts can be overlooked ( Waitzkin. 1990 ) .

The assortment within psychological science

Psychology is a wide subject with a assortment of attacks such as Social and Cognitive Psychology. Social Psychology looks at qualitative interactions in the existent universe between people. whereas Cognitive Psychology examines the idea processes involved in single logical thinking. The former can non be efficaciously manipulated in a controlled research lab experiment. whereas the latter can be. If one attempts to unnaturally make and carry on a societal experiment which uses entirely statistics as a method of obtaining and construing consequences. one will lose the rich informations that can be gained through qualitative measuring. looking at significances and readings. A grade of flexibleness is required in theory building and method development. taking attention to admit how applied the scientific discipline is and the huge array of methodological processs to follow.

Top down vs. underside up

When carry oning empirical probe in psychological science. the research inquiry should take the methodological analysis. non the other manner unit of ammunition. However. with the dominant quantitative method. research workers tend impose theories on informations and see whether or non the informations supports the theory. Upon these consequences. the research workers either accept or reject their hypotheses. instead than farther researching any disagreements. Alternatively. research workers who adopt a qualitative method allow the informations drive the theory and design theoretical accounts and theory from informations. This is unpopular with many as it can oversimplifying complex societal phenomena.

As we can see. both designs appear to be poloarised. with small or no room for convergence.

Deductive vs. Inductive

Another premise that perpetuates the ‘methodological circle’ is the belief that quantitative methods ever must utilize a hypothetico-deductive attack and qualitative methods an inductive attack. Again. this restricts the manner in which research workers can work with their capable affair. and instead than following an antithetical attack. research workers should endeavour to concentrate on the principle of the survey and the research inquiry.

Realism vs. Idealism

In a similar vain to the short treatment above. there is the determinist premise that all quantitative research workers are realists and qualitative research workers are idealist in their attack. This premise enforces more limitations on the manner research would be carried out. Indeed quantitative research could make good to accept more subjective and single attitudes. as qualitative methods could with more nonsubjective. mensurable attacks.

Traveling frontward

Admiting the obstructions above. I will now research ways in which psychological science can travel frontward. off from the ‘methodological circle’ towards an attack that recognises and embraces both ‘quantitative’ and ‘qualitative’ virtuousnesss. Such an attack should non be concerned with paradigmatic purism but more concerned with placing effectual ways of conceptualising and detecting replies to the research inquiries.

Grounded Theory -Theoretical impregnation and sampling

When utilizing Grounded Theory. research workers use Theoretical sampling until they reach ‘Theoretical saturation’ . where research workers collect informations “until ( a ) no new or relevant informations seem to emerge sing a class. ( B ) the class is good developed in footings of its belongingss and dimensions showing fluctuation. and ( degree Celsius ) the dealingss among classs are good established and validated. ” ( Strauss & A ; Corbin. 1998. p. 212 ) . Such a fluid and flexible attack provides a utile agencies in theory building because it builds the theory as it evolves from incoming informations. offering an alternate position on how the consequences are interpreted than the restrictive rationalist. deductive attacks.

Relational metatheory

Relational metatheory offers a relational dialectical position in which reading ( a more quantitative. positivist attack ) and observation ( a more qualitative. construstivist attack ) are both acknowledged and used ( Overton. 1998 ; 2003 ) . Relationism metatheory acknowledges that there is interconnectedness between the individual. civilization and biological science ( Hase. 2000 ) . which is a much more fluid and exploratory method so a split metatheory ( utilizing merely quantitative or qualitative ) . This consequences in more complex. ego making. ego organizing. ego regulation and adaptative systems that map and develop in relation with sociocultural concepts.

In decision. there is a scope of obstructions research workers encounter when trying to interrupt free of the ‘methodological circle’ . These include both theoretical considerations such as theory building and practical considerations such as the dependance on statistics. In order to travel off from these imposed limitations. research workers should see following a more inclusive. flexible attack such as Grounded Theory and Relational Metatheory. As Danzgier concludes we must get the better of these jobs associated with the ‘methodological circle’ in psychological research ; if non “theory proving in psychological science will be a affair of taking among different versions of a theoretical place. the cardinal characteristics of which are in fact beyond difference. ” ( Danziger. 1985. p. 13 ) .

Mentions

Alexander. J. C. . Eyerman. R. . Giesen. B. . Smelser. N. J. . Sztompka. P.
( 2004 ) Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity. University of California Press. CA

Danziger. K. ( 1985 ) The methodological jussive mood in psychological science. Doctrine of the Social Sciences. 15. 1-13

Freud. S. ( 1918 ) The Complete Introductionary Lectures on Psychoanalsis. Alden Press. Oxford

Hase. S. ( 2000 ) ‘Mixing methodological analysiss in research’ . NCVER conference. Coffs Harbour. April.

Koch. S. ( 1963 ) Psychology: A Study Of a Science. ( Koch. S. ( Ed. ) . ( 1959-1963 ) . McGraw-Hill. New York

Kuhn. T. S. ( 1962 ) The construction of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press. Chicago

Overton. W. F. ( 2012 ) Paradigms in Theory Construction. ( Eds L’Abate. L. ) Springer ; US.

Silverman. D. ( 1993 ) “Beginning Research” . Interpreting Qualitative Data. Methods for Analyzing Talk. Text and Interaction. Sage Publications. Londres

Strauss. A. L. & A ; Corbin. J. M. ( 1998 ) Basics of qualitative research: techniques and processs for developing grounded theory. Sage Publications. US

Waitzkin. H. ( 1990 ) On Analyzing the Discourse of Medical Encounters. Medical Care. 28:6. 473-487

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