Genetics unit test study guide vocab

Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait

Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait

Phenotype
An organism physical appearance, or visual trait

Genotype
An organisms genetic makeup, or allele combination.

DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism

Chromosome
A double rod like condensed chromatin

Gene
The set information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA

Allele
The different forms of a gene

Hereditary
The passing of traits from parent to offspring

Trait
Each different form of a characteristic

Genetics
The scientific study of hereditary

Recessive
The allele that is always hidden when a dominant allele is present

Dominant
An allele that always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

Purebred
An offspring of many generations that have the same trait

Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait

Codominance
Both alleles are dominant, and the phenotype is a patchwork mixture of the traits

Incomplete dominance
The phenotype result in a blend of two different alleles, because neither allele is dominant or recessive

Punnett square
A chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur

Electrophoresis
The process used for DNA fingerprinting

Human genome
A map of all human genes