Genetics- the study of inheritance

Heredity
passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics
The branch of Biology that deals with the study of hereditary
Who is the father of genetics
Greger Mendel
What traits would you want in an organism if you were to study how traits were inheritance?
-Traits you can recognize, Has quick life span, Produces more offspring, Small size, Be able to take care of them in captivity
What are some organisms that have been traditionally used for the study of heredity.
Mice, rats, rabbits, fruit flies, yeast, mustard
Gene
a segment of DNA that helps control a particular hereditary trait such as number of eyes
Allele
A genetic factor that controls one form of expression of a gene. For example antennae or no antennae
Somatic cell
14 chromosomes = 2n (diploid)
Gamete
7 chromosomes= 1n (haploid)
Genotype
the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Genom
entire genetic code for an organism
phentype
way that genes are expressed or shown
dominant trait
a gene that will appear if one of the parents contributes it
Recessive trait
can be carried in a person’s genes without appearing in that person
Asexual Reproduction
1. Squeeze in the middle and breaks apart. Each half regenerates the parts missing.
Asexual uses the cellular process of
mitosis and sytokenis
Asexual reproduction` means
not or without sex
Asexual reproduction results in what
2 reebops that are genetically identical to each other
Sexual Reproduction
1. The reproductive cell in the male produce sperm while the reproductive cells in the female produce eggs through the process of meiosis.
Sexual Reproduction Fertilization
the combination of the egg and sperm to produce a fertilized egg which then undergoes mitosis to produce a new organism. Fertilization can occur externally(as in most species of frogs) or internally( in mammals)
homozygous
2 of the same allele
hetrozygous
different alleles
Genotypic ratio
AA:Aa:aa
Phenotypic
Trait: no trait