General Psychology

Psychology
the science that studies behavior and mental processes

Theory
set of hypothesized statements about the relationships among events

Pure Research
research conducted without concern for immediate applications

Applied Research
research conducted in an effort to find solutions to particular problems

Introspection
deliberate looking into one’s own cognitive processes to examine one’s thoughts and feelings

Structuralism
school of psychology that argues that the mind consists of three basic elements – sensations, feelings, and images – that combine to form experience

Functionalism
school of psychology that emphasizes the uses or functions of the mind rather than the elements of experience

Behaviorism
school of psychology that defines psychology as the study of observable behavior and studies relationships between stimuli and responses

Reinforcement
stimulus that follows a response and increases the frequency of the response

Gestalt psychology
school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into wholes and to integrate separate stimuli into meaningful patterns

Psychoanalysis
school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior

Biological Perspective
approach to psychology that seeks to understand the nature of the links between biological processes and structures such as the functioning of the brain, the endocrine system, and heredity, on the other hand, and behavior and mental processes, on the other

Cognitive
having to do with mental processes such as sensation and perception, memory, intelligence, language, thought, and problem solving

Social-cognitive Theory
school of psychology in the behaviorist tradition that includes cognitive factors in the explanation and prediction of behavior; formerly termed social learning theory

Sociocultural Perspective
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in behavior and mental processes

Gender
the culturally defined concepts of masculinity and femininity

Critical Thinking
a way of evaluating the claims and comments of other people that involves skepticism and examination of evidence

Scientific Method
an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to expand and refine knowledge

Hypothesis
in psychology, a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research

Correlation
an association or relationship among variables, as we might find between height and weight or between study habits and school grades

Selection Factor
source of bias that may occur in research findings when participants are allowed to choose fro themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study

Sample
part of a population

Population
a complete group of interest to researchers, from which a sample is drawn

Random Sample
a sample drawn so that each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate

Stratified Sample
a sample drawn so that identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample

Volunteer Bias
a source of bias or error in research reflecting the prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies differ systematically from people who do not

Case Study
a carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and psychological tests

Survey
a method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior

Naturalistic Observation
scientific method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments

Correlational Method
mathematical method of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as another variable increases or decreases

Correlation Coefficient
a number between +1.00 and -1.00 that expresses the strength and direction (positive or negative) of the relationship between two variables

Experiment
scientific method that seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables

Independent Variable
condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed

Dependent Variable
measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable

Experimental Groups
in experiments, groups whose members obtain the treatment

Control Groups
in experiments, groups whose members do not obtain the treatment, while other conditions are held constant

Placebo
a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine

Blind
in experimental terminology, unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment

Double-blind Study
study in which neither the subjects nor the observers know who has received the treatment

Informed Consent
participant’s agreement to participate in research after receiving information about the purposes of the study and the nature of the treatments

Debrief
to explain the purposes and methods of a completed procedure to a participant

the science that seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes is called
psychology

What of the following is a set of hypothesized statements that proposes reasons for relationships among events and allows us to derive explanations and predictions?
theory

Which type of research is conducted because the researcher is interested in the topic and not because the information is needed to solve an immediate personal or social problem?
pure research

Which type of psychologist identifies and measures human traits; determines influences on human thought processes, feelings, and behavior; and is particularly concerned with issues, such as anxiety, aggression, and gender roles?
personality psychologist

Psychologists who make technical systems such as automobile dashboards and computer keyboards more user-friendly are called ________ psychologists
human factors psychologists

Which type of psychologist applies psychology to the criminal justice system, such as treating psychologically ill offenders or conducting research on eyewitness testimony?
forensic psychologist

Deliberating looking into one’s own cognitive processes to examine one’s thoughts and feelings and gain self-knowledge is called
introspection

Most historians set the debut of modern psychology as a laboratory science in the year 1879 when the first psychological lab was established in Leipzig, Germany by
Wilhelm Wundt

The school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into wholes and to integrate separate stimuli into meaningful patterns is called
Gestalt psychology

Psychologists with which contemporary perspective investigate the ways we perceive and mentally represent the world, how we learn, remember, solve problems, form judgments, make decisions, and use language?
cognitive

Which perspective in psychology views people as free to choose and as being responsible for choosing ethical conduct?
Existential

Which of the following women introduced the method of paired associates in studying memory, discovered the primacy and recency effects, conducted research into the role of frequency and repetition in the vividness of memory, and became president of the American Psychological Association?
Mary Whiton Clakins

A way of evaluating the claims and comments of other people that involves skepticism and examination of evidence is referred to as
critical thinkin

A source of bias that may occur in research findings when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study is called a
selection factor

A study is conducted using a small segment of a larger group that is of interest to the researchers and to which the results of the study will be generalized. This smaller segment is called a
sample

A method of scientific observation in which a large group of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior is called
survey

To investigate whether observed behavior or measured traits are related to one another, such as intelligence and academic performance, researchers use a mathematic method of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as the other variable increases or decreases. This method is called a(n)
Correlational method

The condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed is called the ________ variable.
independent variable

A study in which neither the subjects nor the observers know who has received the treatment is called a ________ study.
double-blind study

A participant’s agreement to participate in research after receiving information about the purposes of the study and the nature of the treatments is referred to as
informed consent