General Psychology

Psychology
the science that studies behavior and mental processes
Theory
set of hypothesized statements about the relationships among events
Pure Research
research conducted without concern for immediate applications
Applied Research
research conducted in an effort to find solutions to particular problems
Introspection
deliberate looking into one’s own cognitive processes to examine one’s thoughts and feelings
Structuralism
school of psychology that argues that the mind consists of three basic elements – sensations, feelings, and images – that combine to form experience
Functionalism
school of psychology that emphasizes the uses or functions of the mind rather than the elements of experience
Behaviorism
school of psychology that defines psychology as the study of observable behavior and studies relationships between stimuli and responses
Reinforcement
stimulus that follows a response and increases the frequency of the response
Gestalt psychology
school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into wholes and to integrate separate stimuli into meaningful patterns
Psychoanalysis
school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior
Biological Perspective
approach to psychology that seeks to understand the nature of the links between biological processes and structures such as the functioning of the brain, the endocrine system, and heredity, on the other hand, and behavior and mental processes, on the other
Cognitive
having to do with mental processes such as sensation and perception, memory, intelligence, language, thought, and problem solving
Social-cognitive Theory
school of psychology in the behaviorist tradition that includes cognitive factors in the explanation and prediction of behavior; formerly termed social learning theory
Sociocultural Perspective
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in behavior and mental processes
Gender
the culturally defined concepts of masculinity and femininity
Critical Thinking
a way of evaluating the claims and comments of other people that involves skepticism and examination of evidence
Scientific Method
an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to expand and refine knowledge
Hypothesis
in psychology, a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research
Correlation
an association or relationship among variables, as we might find between height and weight or between study habits and school grades
Selection Factor
source of bias that may occur in research findings when participants are allowed to choose fro themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study
Sample
part of a population
Population
a complete group of interest to researchers, from which a sample is drawn
Random Sample
a sample drawn so that each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate
Stratified Sample
a sample drawn so that identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample
Volunteer Bias
a source of bias or error in research reflecting the prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies differ systematically from people who do not
Case Study
a carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and psychological tests
Survey
a method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior
Naturalistic Observation
scientific method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments
Correlational Method
mathematical method of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as another variable increases or decreases
Correlation Coefficient
a number between +1.00 and -1.00 that expresses the strength and direction (positive or negative) of the relationship between two variables
Experiment
scientific method that seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables
Independent Variable
condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed
Dependent Variable
measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable
Experimental Groups
in experiments, groups whose members obtain the treatment
Control Groups
in experiments, groups whose members do not obtain the treatment, while other conditions are held constant
Placebo
a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine
Blind
in experimental terminology, unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment
Double-blind Study
study in which neither the subjects nor the observers know who has received the treatment
Informed Consent
participant’s agreement to participate in research after receiving information about the purposes of the study and the nature of the treatments
Debrief
to explain the purposes and methods of a completed procedure to a participant
the science that seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes is called
psychology
What of the following is a set of hypothesized statements that proposes reasons for relationships among events and allows us to derive explanations and predictions?
theory
Which type of research is conducted because the researcher is interested in the topic and not because the information is needed to solve an immediate personal or social problem?
pure research
Which type of psychologist identifies and measures human traits; determines influences on human thought processes, feelings, and behavior; and is particularly concerned with issues, such as anxiety, aggression, and gender roles?
personality psychologist
Psychologists who make technical systems such as automobile dashboards and computer keyboards more user-friendly are called ________ psychologists
human factors psychologists
Which type of psychologist applies psychology to the criminal justice system, such as treating psychologically ill offenders or conducting research on eyewitness testimony?
forensic psychologist
Deliberating looking into one’s own cognitive processes to examine one’s thoughts and feelings and gain self-knowledge is called
introspection
Most historians set the debut of modern psychology as a laboratory science in the year 1879 when the first psychological lab was established in Leipzig, Germany by
Wilhelm Wundt
The school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into wholes and to integrate separate stimuli into meaningful patterns is called
Gestalt psychology
Psychologists with which contemporary perspective investigate the ways we perceive and mentally represent the world, how we learn, remember, solve problems, form judgments, make decisions, and use language?
cognitive
Which perspective in psychology views people as free to choose and as being responsible for choosing ethical conduct?
Existential
Which of the following women introduced the method of paired associates in studying memory, discovered the primacy and recency effects, conducted research into the role of frequency and repetition in the vividness of memory, and became president of the American Psychological Association?
Mary Whiton Clakins
A way of evaluating the claims and comments of other people that involves skepticism and examination of evidence is referred to as
critical thinkin
A source of bias that may occur in research findings when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study is called a
selection factor
A study is conducted using a small segment of a larger group that is of interest to the researchers and to which the results of the study will be generalized. This smaller segment is called a
sample
A method of scientific observation in which a large group of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior is called
survey
To investigate whether observed behavior or measured traits are related to one another, such as intelligence and academic performance, researchers use a mathematic method of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as the other variable increases or decreases. This method is called a(n)
Correlational method
The condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed is called the ________ variable.
independent variable
A study in which neither the subjects nor the observers know who has received the treatment is called a ________ study.
double-blind study
A participant’s agreement to participate in research after receiving information about the purposes of the study and the nature of the treatments is referred to as
informed consent