Cerebellum: A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
Limbic System: A group of neural structures at the base of the cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotion and motivation.
Brain Stem: Connection to spinal cord. Filters information flow between peripheral nervous system and the rest of the brain.
Bottom-Up: Processing of a stimulus in which information forms a physical stimulus rather than from a general context. Stimulus information arrives from the sensory receptors. The combination of these simple features allow us to recognize more complex patterns.
Parasympathetic: Activates tranquil functions, such as stimulating the secretion of saliva or digestive enzymes into the stomach.
Storage: Where the information is stored, how long the memory lasts, how much can be stored at any time, and what kind of information is held. The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it.
Retrieval: Getting information out of storage. If we can’t remember something, it may be because we are unable to retrieve it.
Validity: Quality of being logically or factually sound.
Authoritative Parenting: Parents democratically establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. Parents are responsive and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet expectations, parents are nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing.
Permissive Parenting: Parents have few demands to make. Rarely discipline their children because of low expectations of maturity and self-control. Sometimes referred to as indulgent parents.
Recollection: Reconstructing memory, utilizing logical structures, partial memories, narratives or clues. Example: Writing an answer on an essay exam often involves remembering bits on information and restructuring the remaining information based on these partial memories.
Recognition: Identifying information after experiencing it again. Example: Taking a multiple-choice quiz requires that you recognize the correct answer out of a group of available answers.
Relearning: Relearning information that has been previously learned. Often makes it easier to remember and retrieve information in the future and can improve the strength of memories.
Avoidance-Avoidance: Person is simultaneously repelled by two goals, objects, or actions but still obliged to select one. Example: Young boy must choose to either clean his room or do dishes.
Single Approach-Avoidance: When a person is attracted to and repelled by one goal, we have a single approach. These conflicts are difficult to resolve and generate much anxiety. Example: You want to go to college but know it’s very expensive.
Double Approach-Avoidance: Two goals, each with good and bad points. Like single approach-avoidance conflicts, these are anxiety-provoking and hard to resolve. Example: I want to date both Amy and Beth but don’t know which one to pursue.
Expressive Behaviors (quickened pace)
Consciously Experienced Thoughts and Feelings (sense of fear and joy)
Alarm: First stage. Divided into two phases.
-Shock Phase results in Hypoglycemia—The Stressor Effect.
-Antishock Phase: Stressor identified and body starts to respond while in a state of alarm. Fight-or-flight response.
Resistance: Increases secretion of glucocorticoids to intensify the systemic response.
Recovery or Exhaustion:
-Recovery: Body’s compensation mechanisms have successfully overcome the stressor effect.
-Exhaustion: Resources are depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function.
Higher Socioeconomic Status = Less Stress
Antidepressants: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act on the chemical serotonin, a neurotransmitter in your brain to influence mood.
Sedatives: Benzodiazepines help you relax by reducing the amount of anxiety you feel.
Desensitization or Exposure Therapy: Focuses on changing your response to the object or situation that you fear. Gradual, repeated exposure to the cause of the phobia may help learn to conquer the anxiety.
Not making life decisions.
Talking to a neutral party.
Doing things you enjoy.
Exercising and being active.
Freud’s Perspective on Personality Development: Personality develops in stages that are related to specific erogenous zones. Failure to successfully complete these stages would lead to personality problems in adulthood.
Humanistic Perspective: Psychological growth, free will, and personal awareness. Positive outlook on human nature and how people achieve their individual potential.
Trait Perspective: Identifying, describing, and measuring specific traits that make up human personality.
Social Cognitive: Observational learning, self-efficacy, situational influences and cognitive processes.
Ego: Responsible for dealing with reality. Develops from the id and ensures that its impulses can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. Functions in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.
Superego: Holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society; our sense of right and wrong. Provides guidelines for making judgments. Begins to emerge around age five.
Type B: Enjoys achievement but don’t become stressed when they fail.