## General Chemistry – Lab Final

 percent error
 (average value – true value)—————————- x 100% true value
 coefficient of variation
 (standard deviation)——————— x 100% mean(not S.D.’s mean)
 percent difference
 |(Value 1 – Value 2)|———————- x 100%| Avg. of values |
 standard deviation (excel)
 formulas > more functions > statistical > stdev.s
 measurements related to systematic error
 absolute error and percent error
 measurements related to random error
 standard deviation and coefficient of variation
 measurements related to accuracy
 absolute error and percent error
 measurements related to precision
 standard deviation and coefficient of variation
 define accuracy
 closeness of measured value to the true value, correctness
 define precision
 closeness of measured values to each other, reproducibility
 calculate moles of a substance given grams
 # grams / molecular mass of compound
 calculate grams of substance given moles
 multiply # moles by molecular mass of compound
 calculation for concentration
 molarity, n (mols of substance) / volume of substance in liters or PPM
 calculate parts per million (PPM)
 mass of substance in Mg / volume in liters
 density
 mass / volume
 one amp = ? coulombs
 one amp = one coulomb of charge per second
 charge of an electron
 -1.602 x 10 ^ -19 coulombs
 40 amp circuit how many coulombs per second?
 40
 to find the total charge passed through a circuit
 multiply time (in seconds) by # of amps passed through
 to find # of electrons passed through a circuit
 multiply # coulombs by the charge of an electron (750C x [1/1.602×10^-19])
 how to type 3.09 x 10^19 into excel
 3.09e+19
 6.022×10^23
 percent yield
 actual yield / theoretical yield x 100%
 Qrxn
 – C calorimeter X Temperature change
 Delta H mol (enthalpy change per mol of fuel burned)
 Q rxn / n burned (mols fuel burned)
 Delta H G (enthalpy change per gram of fuel burned)
 1) delta H mol / molecular mass of fuel2) Q rxn / mass burned
 how to calculate energy of one photon
 e = hc / lambda
 H represents what
 plancks constant, 6.626×10^-34 joules per second
 C represents what
 speed of light, 2.9979×10^8 meters per second
 lambda represents what
 wavelength in nanometers (must be converted to meters in energy equation)
 how to convert from nanometers to meters
 multiply the nanometers by (10^-9)
 molarity
 moles of substance / volume in liters
 parts per million
 mass of substance in mg / volume in liters
 molarity dilution calculation
 m1v1 = m2v2
 bond angle for linear
 180
 bond angle for trigonal planar
 120
 bond angle for tetrahedral
 109.5
 bond angle for trigonal bypyramidal
 90 and 120
 bond angle for octahedral
 90
 bond angle for 2 groups of electrons
 180
 bond angle for 3 groups of electrons
 120
 bond angle for 4 groups of electrons
 109.5
 define hydrocarbons vapor pressure and solubility
 high vapor pressure, insoluble
 define esters vapor pressure and solubility
 high vapor pressure, high to moderate solubility
 define alcohols vapor pressure and solubility
 low vapor pressure, high to moderate solubility
 molecular mass equation for chapter 8
 (Mgas)(R = .0821)(Tbath)/(ambient pressure in atm)(Vbottle volume of gas)
 how to find mass of gas
 Mincrease (avg) + M correction
 equation to find M correction
 (MM air 29g/mol)(Sample VP atm)(Vbottle in L)/(.0821)(room temp kelvin)
 how to determine formula of ester or alcohol
 divide its molecular mass by 15, round to nearest whole number, for esters 2 of these numbers will be O atoms, for alcohols one will be an O atom
 typical vapor pressure of ester and hydrocarbon
 >20torr
 typical vapor pressure of alcohol
 <10torr
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