GCSE Chemistry

How many elements are there in the periodic table?
Approximately 100 elements
Why do elements in the same group have similar chemical properties?
Because they have the same number of outer electrons.
Which number is used to order the elements on the periodic table?
The atomic number

What are the products when you heat calcium carbonate?


Write an equation for the reaction

Calcium carbonate termally decomposes to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.


CaCO3 -CaO +CO2

Noble gases have monatomic molecules.

What does monatomic mean?

Why are noble gases monatomic? 

Monatomic means that their molecules only contain one  atom.

Noble gases are monatomic because they have full outer shells and do not need to share electrons with other atoms.

What are the uses of titanium?

Titanium is strong and light, so it is used in alloys for aircraft manufacture.

Titanium oxide is used as a white pigment in food and paint.

Titanium is inert, so it is used in replacement bone and cartilage 

What are the uses of fluorides, chlorine and iodine?

Fluorides are used in the water supply and in toothpaste to strength teeth.

Chlorine is used in water purification.

Iodine is used as an antiseptic.

What are the uses of calcium carbonate (limestone)?
Limestone and marble are important building materials. Calcium carbonate is used in the production of glass, cement and iron (in the blast furnace)
What are the properties and uses of iron?
Iron is used in car bodywork, because it can be rolled into sheets, is strong and relatively cheap. It is wound with aluminium to make overhead powerlines as it is strong. It is a catalyst in the Haber process.
List three uses of sodium chloride.
Sodium chloride is used in cooking, to de-ice roads, as a fertilizer for some crops, in bacon curing and water softeners.
What are the properties and uses of copper?
Copper is a good electrical conductor and is ductile, soit is used for electrical wiring. It is a good conductor of heat, so it is used for for saucepans botooms. It does not react with water, so it is used for pipes.
List three uses of sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide is a component of oven-cleaner and bleach. it is used in the manufacture of soap.
List three uses of chlorine.

Chlorine is used to purify water supplies, as a component of bleach and in the manufacture of plastic (like PVC), pesticides and CFC’s

Chlorine was used in chemical warfare in WW1.

List three uses of hydrogen.
Hydrogen is used in the manufacture of ammonia, to hydrogenerate margarine, in fuel cells in some cars and as rocket fuel.

What evidence have you seen to suggest that alkali metals are reactive?


Describe the reaction.

Alkali metals react violently in water.


Potassium melts, produces hydrogen gas, whizzes around on the surface, burns with a lilac flame and diappears.

The componds of group one metals are soluble – they dissolve in water.

What is the PH of the oxides and hdroxides of group one metals?

The oxides and hydroxides of group one metals are alkaline (PH greater than 7)
What unusual physical properties do alkali metals have compared to other metals?
The alkali metals have comparatively low melting points and boiling points and are softer than other metals

Hydrogen chloride is a very soluble gas. When it dissolves in water, whatis the PH of the solution?


What is the name of the solution?

PH1=(highly acidic)

Turns universal indicator red


The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid, written HCL.

Why do elements in the same group have similar chemical properties?
Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of outer electrons.

How can you neutralise sodium hydroxide?


What is produced when you neutralise a group of metal hydroxide?

Sodium hydroxide can be neutralised by acids, like hydrochloric acid.

The products of neutralisation is a salt and water. In this case,the salt is sodium chloride.

What happens when calcium oxide is mixed with water?

What is the name of the solution produced?

An exotheric reaction occurs and calcium hydroxide is produced.

A solution ofcalcium hydroxide is called limewater.

How are calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide used in agriculture?
Calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide are used to neutralise soil acidity.
If a solution of bromine in water is mixed with colourless sodium chloride solution, what will happen?
There is no change when sodium chloride solution is mixed with bromine water. This is because bromine is less reactive than chlorine, so the chlorine is not displaced from the salt.
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