Gasoline

GASOLINE TOXIC COMPOUNDS AND ADVERSE EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
In the early 20th Century gasoline was being produced by oil companies using distillates from petroleum. Unfortunately, this was not enough energy to power the new atutomobiles that would soon be arriving. More chemicals, addetives and research had to be done. Around 1910 laws were passed that prohibited gasoline from being stored. Perhaps the car industries were growing so rapidly, it was then the government began to take note to regulate the use of gasoline for the protection of the environment. Lead and benzene are toxins found in gasoline that are confirmed to be regulated human carcinogens. Carcinogens have been tested also to induce cancer found in humans and animals. This paper will determine and discuss these two types of toxins identified in gasoline, the dangers of these toxins and how they affect the environment in which we live in.
When gasoline is burned it releases a form of energy of hydrogen and carbon. This energy forms water and carbon dioxide. Carbon moxide may be formed as well if the compnents are not precise and complete. Gasoline is said to contain over 500 hydrocarbons. There are two types of hydrocarbons; saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons are somewhat stable found in leaded gasolines and burn a clean flame in the air. On the other hand, unsaturated hydrocarbons are unstable and tend to burn a dark smoky flame. Studies have proven lead poisoning can be obtained through particles in the air, dust, soil an other various ways. The alkyl lead compands found in gasoline can reduce the toxicity of exhaust by removing these compands when they are used in certain modern catalysts type engines. Unleaded gasoline is not more toxic than lead but, keep in mind if unleaded gasoline that is not supported by catalysts it may increase the risk of toxic intake. Some countries are using aromatic or olefin octane-improvers to replace lead compunds octane-improvers to reduce the lead intake for health reasons. According to researchers using aromatics will increase 40%, where other countries using a high octane unleaded fuels will increase up to 50% when using oxygenates. It is proven that exhaust catalysts have a short life span and will immediately poison if it is misfuelled with leaded fuel. Therefore, the mishandling of catalyst can cause extremely high levels of toxic exposure when equipment is not repaired or replaced. Unleaded fuels used on modern vehicles can reduce aromatic emissions up to 10%, provded the vehicles have engine management systems and catalysts to regulate.
Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, colorless liquid with a pleasant odor obtained mostly from petroleum. It is used by industries to produce platics, synthetic rubber, nylon, detergents, and dyes. It’s poisonous vapor can be deadly when breathed too long. The benzene molecule has its atoms arranged in a ring called the benzene ring. These molecules are represented by hexagon form by the six sets of carbon and hydrogen atoms which bond together with single and double bonds. Relatively soluble in water, it is capable of mixing with polar solvents without separating into two phases. Benzene linked to causing several cancers in human. Leukemia is a cancer derived from a chemical induced change in bone marrow caused by an exposure to benzene and cyclophosphamide as well as other toxicants. Several law suites were filed against many industries due to a wide outbreak of Leukemia casses. On July 1, 1999, suppliers were prohibited to supply gasoline that contained benzene at a concentration that exceeds 1.0% by volume.
The release of toxins in the air we breathe have been linked to several life threatening cancers. The government with the help of industries have created the emission research program to help regulate some of the pollution in the environment caused by the automobiles we drive. Although it is said that using reformulated gasoline can reduce the smog pollution, it has not yet been confirmed. There is a reduction in some of the compounds but also an increase in others which may be hazardous to our environment. The reactivity is the ozone-forming chemical of the VOC or the number of mlecules per VOC carbon atom. In 1993 The International Symposium on the Health Effects of Gasoline came together to discuss and compare research on the findings of toxicity of gasoline, oxygenates and carcinogenic neurotoxic.The World we live in is rapidly changing and adjusting to the many different technology developments. Unfortunately, these changes determine the safety of our environment from deadly toxins. Reducing the the alkyle leads, olefins, and aromatics found in gasoline can create a new research of compounds that may be regulated to protect people and our environment. The air we breathe is something we all have to rely on to survive. It is crushal the we protect and purify our environment from impurities caused by industries and automobiles in order to prolong the life of our off springs.
REFERENCES
Phasing Out Lead From Gasoline: Worldwide Experience and Policy Implications World Bank Technical Paper ; No. 397 by Lovei, Magda.
Toxicol Ind Health. 1991 Sep-Nov;7(5-6):143-52. PMID: 1780852 PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE
ATECLP and EDF. 1994 The Global Dimensions of Lead Poisoning. Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning and Environmental Defense Fund., Washington DC.


AQIRP (Auto/Air Quality Improvement Research Program) 1992 Effects of Fuel Sulfur on Mass Exhaust Emissions, Air Toxics, and Reactivity Technical Bulletin No. 8. Coordinating Research Council, Atlanta GA

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