## Gases

 What is pressure?
 Force applied per given area.
 The units of pressure
 atm, kpa, torr or mmHg
 What is STP
 standard temp and pressure Table A237 K ~ 0 C1 atm ~ 101.3 kPa 760 torr or 760 mmhg
 kinetic molecular theory of gases
 ideal gases
 property #1
 the gas molecules move in a continuous straight line w/ random movement.
 property #2
 there are no forces of attraction between molecules
 property #3
 molecules are so small they essentially have no volume.
 property #4
 collisions are elastic between gas molecules (elastic indicates no energy expanded)
 property #5
 there is a direct relationship between temperature and ave kinetic energy of a particle
 which gases most resemble an ideal gas under most conditions: He
 The lighter the gas, the more ideal it will act (therefore H2 and He act the most idea.
 Real Gases
 low volumelow temperaturelow pressure
 Ideal Gases
 high volumehigh temperaturehigh pressure
 Boyles law:
 relationship between pressure and volume of gas at constant temp and number of particles. A increase in pressure causes a decrease in volume.
 Charles Law:
 relationship between and volume of a gasAt constant pressure and number of particles. An increase in temperature causes an increase in volume.
 Gay-Lussac’s Law
 relationship between temp and pressure of gas. At constant volume and number of particles and an increase in pressure causes an increase of temperature.
 Combines Gas Law
 By combining all the laws for an ideal gas, we can solve for all 3 variables(P1 X V1)/T1 = (P2 X V2)/T2
 What is vapor pressure
 1. Pressure that is exerted the container walls as collisions occur.2. The greater the temperature the greater the vapor pressure
 trends on table H
 Temperature goes uppressure goes up
 What is the boiling point of water?
 100 CMt Everest P525 torr 7 BP is lower because there are less air molecules applying pressure. Molecules vaporize more quickly.
 If something is volatile does i have a low vapor pressure or a high vapor pressure?
 High vapor pressure-it vaporizes quickly *unstable and volatile substance have high vapor point.
 What is boiling point?
 1. The point at which all the molecules have enough energy to change into vapor.2. When the vapor pressure of the liquid equals or exceeds atmosphere pressure, the boiling occurs.
 Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of gasses contain the same number of particles.
 Particles can be:
 moleculesatoms ions
 What is the mole?
 unit number of particles1. 1 mole of particles equals the formula mass of the substance express in grams2. 1 mole refers to 6.02 x 10 (23) particles.
 What is molar volume?
 1 mole of any gas will occupy a volume of 22.4 liters @stp
 Which does not have a molar volume of 22.4 liters?
 I2 (solid at STP)
 Graham’s Law of Diffusion
 At a given temperature and pressure the great the density of the gas the slow the gas diffuses. Effusion is the process of a gas escaping through small pores/openings. This pollows the same principle.
 What is the law of partial pressure?
 The total pressure in a container is equal to the sum of all the partial pressures of the gasses in the container.
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