describes fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking; writing whose purpose is to teach
either-or reasoning
when the writer reduces an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignores any alternatives ex: it is either gonna rain or snow today
sentence structure which leaves out something in the second half. Usually, there is a subject verb object combination in the first half of the sentence and the 2nd half of the sentence will repeat the structure but omit the verb and use a comma to indicate the ellipted material
consists of a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow. It might be called a linking, running, or transitional summary, whose function is to keep the discussion ordered and clear in its progress:
using more words than required to express an idea; being redundant. Normally a vice, it is done on purpose on rare occasions for emphasis:
includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. Thus examples of zeugmatic usage would include one subject with two (or more) verbs, a verb with two (or more) direct objects, two (or more) subjects with one verb, and so forth. The main benefit of the linking is that it shows relationships between ideas and actions more clearly.
metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes–attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified.
deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact. When the writer’s audience can be expected to know the true nature of a fact which might be rather difficult to describe adequately in a brief space, the writer may choose to understate the fact as a means of employing the reader’s own powers of description.
a particular form of understatement, is generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used. Depending on the tone and context of the usage, litotes either retains the effect of understatement, or becomes an intensifying expression.
is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).
a final form of hyperbaton, consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence
using subordination to show the relationship between clauses or phrases (and hence the opposite of parataxis)
combining anaphora and epistrophe, so that one word or phrase is repeated at the beginning and another word or phrase is repeated at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
writing successive independent clauses, with coordinating conjunctions, or no conjunctions
consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it

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