Funds Ch. 14

Question Answer
pathogens microorganisms that cause infections
normal flora or fauna tiny plants or animals normally found in the body, perform necessary functions to protect us from harmful pathogens as well as helping us breakdown and digest food
List the 5 types of pathogens bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, helminths
one-celled microorganisms found virtually everywhere bacteria
pathogen that invades an area outside their normal location that leads to problems bacteria (example- intestinal bacteria that are introduced into the urethra and migrate to bladder, causing UTI)
Two types of bacteria that are different than most and can only reproduce inside the cells of the host, similar to viruses Rickettsia and Chlamydia
vectors ticks, mites, lice
Antibiotics are only effective against what type of pathogen? bacteria
pathogen that is not made up of individual cells, they are tiny parasites that live within the cells of the host and reproduce there virus
T/F all viruses potentially cause illness True
single-celled animals that live in water protozoa
What can be used to treat protozoa? antiparasitic drugs or anti-infectives
Pathogen that may be made up of one or more cells and are present in the environment fungi
List the Chain of Infection 1. An infectious agent2. A reservoir3. A portal of exit4. A mode of transmission5. A portal of entry6. A susceptible host
purple gram stains gram +
pink gram stains gram –
health-care-associated infection (HAI) an infection that is acquired while the pt is being cared for in any health-care setting, former name is nosocomial infection
#1 way to break the chain of infection and prevent HAI's hand hygiene
List the primary defenses skin, mucous membranes, GI system
List the secondary defenses Inflammatory process, elevated temperature, complement cascade
List the tertiary defenses lymphocytes- B and T cells
body temp that is too warm for most invading microbes to live and multiply 101 degrees
Complement cascade Complement, a group of specialized proteins that attack the pathogens by releasing chemicals that make their cell membranes rupture
a group of safety measures performed to prevent the transmission of pathogens found in the blood and body fluids standard precautions
transmission-based precautions used to prevent the spread of known infection to patients or other staff
medical asepsis practices performed to prevent the spread of infection
sphere-shaped bacteria cocci
cocci seen in clusters and are similar to grapes in appearance staphylococci
bacteria that appears in chains, like a bead necklace streptococci
bacteria that appear in pairs, like two balls side to side diplococci
rod-shaped bacteria bacilli
long cells that spiral or coil spirilla
Sphere shaped bacteria Coccus
Rod-shaped bacteria Bacillus
Gram positive bacteria stain what color? Purple
Staph aureusStrep AStrep BC. Diff Bacteria that cause common infections
3 HAIa??s that the CDC will no longer pay for
Catheter-associated infections, infections of the blood due to central vascular lines, infection in chest incision after open-heart surgery
Performing hand hygiene, wearing appropriate protective equipment, using cough etiquette Standard precautions
Medical asepsis Hand hygiene, maintaining a clean pt environment, standard precautions, transmission-based precautions when necessary

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