Fuels From Crude Oil

Define: Combustion
A substance which burns in oxygen to produce heat energy
When Carbon is heated srongly in oxygen a gas is formed. What is the name and formula of the gas?

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

Which test identifies Carbon Dioxide? What would you see if this gas was present?
You would put it in limewater. The limewater will turn cloudy if COis present.
What is the name given to the type of reaction in which substances combine with oxygen?
Oxidation
What do we call reactions which give out heat energy?
Exothermic
What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
What is a hydocarbon?
A molecule which only contains hydrogen and carbon
What does Saturated mean?
There are no double bonds (only single bonds)
What is distillation?

This is when a substance is boiled so it evaportaes, it then is cooled whien it hits a cold surface and finally turned back into a liquid

(heat, evaporate, condense)

Which fractions in oil evaporate first?
Why?
Where are they collected in a fractioning column?
The ones with the least amount of hydrocarbons as there boiling point is lower.
They are collected at the top as they have a lower boiling point.
What does a catalyst do?
It speeds up reactions
What does an oil refinery do with less valuable fraction?
They convert it into a useful fraction.
What is the main impurity in crude oil?
Sulphur
Which part of the fractioning column is hot and which is cold?
The bottom is hot the top is cool.
What is fractional distillation?
A separation process that uses the differences in boiling points to separate the hydrocarbon into fractions.
How does a fractioning column work?
The crude oil is heated until it vaporises and the hot vapour is fed in near the bottom of the fractioning column.
The vapours rise up the fractioning column, cooling as they rise and condensing at different temperatures.
Vapours condense onto a tray when they reach the part of the column which is just cooler than their boiling point so they are collected in their fractions as different levels. Hydrocarbons with the smallest molecules are collected ar the top of the tower as they have the lower boiling points.
The bottom of the tower has fractions which have high boiling points. These cool to form very thick liquids or solids at room temperature.
What happens to the boiling point as hydrocarbon size increases?
It increases
What happens to the viscosity as hydrocarbon size increases?
It increases
What happens to flammability as hydrocarbon size increases?
It decreases.
Why do alkanes get thicker and less runny as the length of the carbon chain increases?
Theere are more forces of attraction when the number of hydrocarbons is small so as hydrocarbon size increases forces of attraction decrease as there is a higher surface area.
What are the products of complete combustion?
Carbon dioxide and water vapour
What the the products of incomplete combustion?
Carbon Monoxide
How is acid rain formed?
Sulphur reacts with the oxygen to create sulphur dioxide. The carbon dioxide dissolves into water and produces acid rain when combined with sulphur
What does a Catalytic converter work?
It converts nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide into nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Name an alternative fuel?
Biodiesel
Ethanol
Hydrogen
Define: Viscosity
How easily something flows
What is the smallest alkane molecule?
Methane
Define: Flammability
How easily something burns.
Which effect is produced by greenhouse gases?
Global Warming
What are some problems with using hydrogen as an alternative fuel?
Hydrogen is explosive
It is expensive to extract as it require electrolysis
Special engines are needed to use hydrogen in cars
Out of Hydrogen,ethanol and biodiesel which is the most efficient?
Hydrogen
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