Four cultures

The first culture to be explored Is the culture of the people of the South Pacific. Vaunt A population of approximately 243,300 Inhabits the tropical Island nation of the Republic of Vaunt, located In the South Pacific Ocean. These people are mostly of Melanesian descent and the official language is Visalia. It is typical of a Vaunt child to be nursed until three years old. Both parents are responsible for childcare, but the siblings, especially an older sister, are very much involved with the infant. They are the ones to carry, feed, and entertain him or her.

Babies are almost always aired In arms. Physical punishment for children Is often used. Ritual Initiation Is commonplace for the IN- Vaunt, and many communities practice these ceremonies to ensure the growth of their offspring. Pigs, kava, mats, and many other goods are exchanged between a child’s father’s and mother’s families during the ceremony. As part of a ritual event, a boy will be circumcised between the ages of six and twelve. Primary education is taught in either English or French, and less than ten percent of these children will continue on to secondary school.

Most children walk to the rarest school and may even board there for the school week. The adult literacy rate has been estimated at about 55-70 percent. The men of Vaunt take part in a yearly harvest ritual called Land Diving. The dive takes place around April or May of every year. The purpose of this ritual is twofold. Firstly, it is performed as a sacrifice to the Gods to ensure a bountiful yam crop for the next season. Second, it is a rite of passage to initiate the boys into manhood. Boys will take part in the land diving, even as young as five years old. Oftentimes, a ritualistic circumcision will be completed afterwards.

The ritual of land delving is a Vaunt practice that Is nearly fifteen centuries old. The surrounding villages build crude wooden towers that reach a height of 100 feet or more. Men volunteer to scale this tower once it is completed. The men tie a vine to the platform of the tower, and then tie the same vine to their ankles. Courageously, the men then dive from the platform, head first, reaching speeds of over 45 MPH as the plunge towards the ground. The goal of this Jump Is to land close enough to the ground so that the diver’s shoulders actually touch the ground.

The vine’s length Is paramount. A miscalculation can mean potential death, or serious injury. The next culture to dissect is the culture of the people of the Arctic Circle. Greenland is a country within the Kingdom of Denmark located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. Greenland is the world’s largest island that is not a continent. The people of Greenland are predominantly Intuit. The region south of the Arctic Circle is home to the largest Intuit population in the world. This region of barren tundra is one of the least hospitable regions to human habitation.

The Intuit place a retreat deal of importance on the time of year in which a child is born. Children born during the winter months are called chagrin, and those born in the summer are called jarring. The Intuit celebrate different birth rituals according to the birth season, and even the types of food and type of clothes will differ with respect to birth season. The “Greenland believe their children are born with complete personalities and are endowed as a birthright with the wisdom, survival instinct, magic and intelligence of their ancestors. Because of this traditional outlook, the Intuit believe that punishing heir children for misbehaving is an insult to their ancestors. The Intuit typically live near the sea, and are mostly hunters of aquatic animals. The Intuit have a tradition of preparing a feast for the village when a boy kills his first seal or caribou. Marriage takes place at puberty for women, and when men are able to provide for a family. The Intuit believe in the afterlife that takes place either in the sky or sea. When people die, their names are given to newborn infants, who then inherit the characteristics of the deceased.

They also believe in making peace with the souls of hunted animals. Greenland is the most extreme of human habitats with respect to annual changes of natural sunlight. Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD, is a cyclical depressive disorder that typically recurs every year during the shorter days and longer nights of late fall- early winter. The rate of suicide has sharply increased during the past few decades, making Greenland now among the highest in the world. High alcohol intake and extended periods of light in the summer may contribute to impulsive-aggressive summer suicides.

Most suicides are of a violent method. Intuit populations, along with SAD, may also experience substance abuse, anxiety, and a host of other mental diseases. One disorder in particular that impacts the Intuit community is obbligato. Obbligato is also known as Artic Hysteria. It is a dissociation condition that affects almost exclusively the people in the circumpolar region. It is most prevalent during the severe winter months and is a very common occurrence. Because of its frequent incidence, it is not seen as a ‘disorder’ to natives and carries no stigma.

It can be described as a sudden onset of seizures, incoherent shouting, tearing off clothes and an last from a few minutes to an hour. Symptoms include cursing, psychotic behavior, consuming fecal matter, running nude through the ice and snow, uncontrollable shaking, and fever. This attack of ‘hysteria’ followed by a period of rest and or a coma lasting up to 12 hors after an attack. Obbligato is more common in the north of Greenland where temperatures are most extreme. It is mostly a disorder that affects women, but men have also been diagnosed. There are instances where dogs have been affected by this disorder.

Calcium deficiency and lack of vitamin A are contributing factors to the frequency of this disorder. The Intuit typically consume food in which vitamin A is overly abundant, as in the ” livers, kidneys, and fat of arctic fish and mammals. ” The lack of sunlight, extreme cold, and the isolation and desolation are also contributing factors to the pilot disorder. The next culture to Reiterate Reiterate is a country located in the Horn of Africa with Sudan, Outside, and Ethiopia serving as its neighbors. The Red Sea makes up part of its coastline, and separates it from Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

Reiterate has celebrated many victories of independence over the rule from Italy, United Kingdom, and twice from Ethiopia. There are many different ethnic groups that make up the society here including Tsarina. Tiger, Afar, Shah, Kumara, and Richards. Reiterate pride themselves on being hard-working and resilient, and show a great social responsibility. In every ethnic group, children are raised under the strong influence of parents and close relatives, as well as neighbors, and kin group. Mothers usually carry infants on their back while performing domestic chores or working in the fields.

Children of both genders are expected to take part in household activities: boys tend to the family vivisect as herders, and girls assist their mother in domestic duties. Children now are in attendance in the formal education of the country and conflict arises when they are no longer present to help out in their traditional duties. In nomadic and semi- nomadic communities, the children are less likely to attend formal school. Common to this region of Africa, many ethnic groups in Reiterate also perform circumcision as an initiation ritual into adulthood. Most men and women are circumcised in Reiterate.

Female circumcision, or Female Genital Mutilation is highly practiced in this region, although in Reiterate it is now deemed illegal. It is a custom that has been practiced by both Muslims and Christians, and is a mix of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and factors within families and communities. This procedure is carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age fifteen, and occasionally on adult women. Oftentimes, female genital mutilation is motivated by beliefs about what is considered ‘proper’ sexual behavior and there is a strong link between FIG and premarital virginity and marital fidelity.

It is deemed a proper way to raise a girl, preparing her for marriage and adulthood. It is a cultural tradition that is believed to lower women’s libido and is associated with ideals of femininity and modesty, and those who are circumcised are considered ‘clean’ and beautiful’. There are varying classifications of Female Genital Mutilation: Type I CLINOMETERS: Excision or Removal of part or the entire clitoris, and in rare cases, only the prepuce. Type II EXCISION of the clitoris; partial or total removal of the labia minor.

Type Ill INFATUATION: Removal of part or all of the external genitalia; stitching of the vaginal orifice to narrow it almost completely closed. Type IV Pricking, piercing, or incising of clitoris and/or labia: stretching of the clitoris and/or labia and categorization (by burning) of clitoris and surrounding tissue Female Genital Mutilation has no health benefits, and is a painful, traumatic and emotional experience . Lit involves removing normal genital tissue, and interferes with than natural function of girls’ and women’s bodies. Health complications are known, however, and include the immediate complications of hemorrhage, severe pain, fractured bones, possible HIVE transmission, and shock; long-term complications such as killed scar formation, manful intercourse, chronic infection, and problems in pregnancy and childbirth; and psychological problems associated with sexual dysfunction caused by painful intercourse, the loss of trust in care-givers, and depression. ” “European and young girls. This is at odds with the high social value placed on it in societies that practice it.

As a symbol of entry into adulthood and acceptance into society as a woman or man, genital mutilation in both sexes may have pivotal cultural significance. ” The following culture to be explored has transcended geography, race, and national origin. Restrain of Jamaica Jamaica is a tropical island nation located in the Caribbean Sea and is the third largest island behind Hispanic and Cuba. For many centuries, Jamaica has welcomed settlers from different places all around the world.

The island has played host to the Meridians who discovered it, to Europeans who fought to own it, to Africans that were forced to call it home, and to Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners searching for a better life. Each group carried with it a story and tradition, throwing everything into Jamaican melting pot. After centuries of brewing, all have landed together to give the island its rich history and heritage – an international smörgåsbord of legends, cultures, and customs. Hence, Jamaican national motto is “Out of Many One People. The Restrain movement is a monotheistic, is a relatively new religious movement that arose from Christian culture in the early sass’s. Its followers worship Hailed Salaries I of Ethiopia. He was a former emperor of Ethiopia (1930-1936 and 1941-1974). Although Salaries was a devout Christian, Roasts worship him as the God incarnate, the Second Advent. Rationalism’s is not a highly organized religion. It is a movement, an ideology, and a way of life. Roasts abhor abject poverty, oppression, and equality. Afro centrism is a component of Restrain culture. Roasts also use marijuana for religious purposes.

There are two important Restrain ceremonies: A reasoning is a simple event in which the Arcata’s gather, smoke cannabis (“ganja”), and tell folk stories. The person honored (usually a man) by being allowed to light the marijuana ‘spiff or cigarette, says a prayer beforehand. The spiff is the passed clockwise around the gathering, except in a time of war when it is passed counterclockwise. A ‘binge’, or a graduation is a holy day. The name “binge” is derived from Nabbing, believed to be an ancient order of militant blacks in eastern Africa that vowed to end oppression.

Binge’s are marked by much singing, dancing, feasting, and the smoking of ganja, and can last for days. Arcata’s are typically vegetarians. They eat ‘I-Tall’ foods that are all natural, and not exposed to chemicals. Food is to be eaten in the most raw form possible with little interference from salts and sugars. They do not eat canned, and packaged foods. They also wear their hair in dreadlocks, an interpretation of the Bible verse Leviticus 21 :5, ” They hall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in the flesh. By reflecting on the historical and cultural traditions that have built these societies, researchers develop a deeper appreciation of cultural similarities and differences. As the world becomes smaller and interaction is more prevalent across cultures, the ability to adapt to and bridge these cultural differences becomes an increasingly important skill set. Research has supplied a correlation between culture and the human brain.

The field of ornithology’s has distinct aspects: exploring the interaction of brain and culture and its implication for our understanding of mind, behavior, and self. It also examines the role of the nervous system in the creation of social and ideological ideologies about the brain. It provides advances in social science theory and the humanities that might also prove useful to brain and behavioral science. Cultural neuroscience looks at how culture can shape cognition, how brains work in different settings, and the culture-dependent connections between cognition and brain function.