Foundations of Exercise Science Final Exam Rutgers Spring 2016

Exercise Science
the study of the acute and chronic effects of exercise with regard to:
– Health effects
– Developing fitness
– Prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation from disease states
– Training for competitive athletics
– Injuries due to exercise or athletics
Sport Studies
– Managerial or administrative aspects
– Facilities
– Budgets
– Programming
– Communication
– Marketing
– Finance
– Legal
Sub Disciplines
1. Exercise Physiology
2. Biomechanics
3. Sport Psychology
4. Motor Learning
5. Sport Sociology
6. Sport History
7. Physical Therapy
8. Occupational Therapy
9. Sports Medicine
10. Athletic Training
11. Personal Training
12. Sports Management
13. Pedagogy
14. Adapted Physical Education
15. Health
16. Recreation
17. Dance
18. Athletics
19. Nutrition
Objectives of the Field:
1. Physical Fitness
2. Motor Skill
3. Cognitive Development
4. Affective Development
Physical Fitness: Health Related
1. Cardiovascular Health (Aerobics)
2. Flexibility
3. Muscular Strength
4. Muscular Endurance
5. Body Composition
Motor Skills
1. Speed
2. Balance
3. Coordination
4. Agility
5. Power
Cognitive Developments
1. Knowledge and understanding
2. Rules and strategies
Affective Developments
1. Social and emotional development
2. Formation of values and attitudes
-Dr. Hitchcock & Dr. Sargent
-Up until 1970’s was known as Physical Education
-In 1970’s became known as Exercise Science and Sport Management Develop
-1970’s to present Growth of Field
Growth of Field from 1970’s to present
1. Increase in leisure time
2. Emphasis of society to fitness and health
3. Became research based field
4. Careers have expanded to non-school settings
5. Wide population to work with
6. Great expansion of sports
• Kraus-Weber Test
• President’s Council on Youth Fitness President Eisenhower
• SI devoted for the first time features on exercise
• AAHPERD – the first physical fitness test
• Influence of President Kennedy
• AAHPERD – Kennedy Family – Special Olympics
• Most popular daytime TV show Jack LaLanne
• Kenneth Cooper – Aerobics
• Sub disciples appear in curriculums
• Title 9 of the Educational Amendments Act – 1972
• P.L. 94-142 or the Education of all Handicapped Children Act
o Special Education begins – OT, PT, APE
o From self-contained to inclusion
• First woman athlete to earn more than $100,000 = BJK
• Shift in population to the suburbs
o New stadiums built
o Sports marketing takes off
• 24 Hour Sports – 1979 ESPN
Title 9 Results
• In 1972 – there were 310,000 women playing high school. In 2012 more than 3,373,000.
• In 1972, American women won 10 medals at the Olympics. In 2012 they won 57 medals and many were in team sports. Men won 47 medals. There were more women competing than men. U.S. women earned more medals than women from any other nation
• Women won 29 gold; men 17 gold
• Linda Carpenter and Vivian Acosta-A Longitudinal, National Study of Title IX -2012
• The computer and its influence
• 2nd national fitness test
• Outdoor activities expand — hiking
o Project Adventure
o Use of Physical Activity as a therapeutic modality
o Massage Therapy
o Dance Therapy
o Cardiac Rehabilitation
o PT and OT expand
• 1990 – Schwarzenegger of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports went around to schools to stress P.E.
• Children increase in sports participation
• State requirements for P.E. decline
• P.L 101 – 336 – ADA Equal opportunity in regard to:
o Employment
o Public accommodations
o Public services
• 1996 – Surgeon’s General Report
• Mind-Body Programs take off- Holistic Wellness e.g. Yoga, Tai-Chi, Message Therapy
• Other Programs/Equipment:
o Slide
o Ab roller
o Tae-bo
o Pilates
o Plyometrics
o Personal training
• Drugs in Sports
• Obesity levels continue to grow
• Internet influence
• Extreme sports introduced
• Mega sports celebrities
Top Exercise Trends – ACE-2014
• Boot camp workouts
• Short-high intensity training- Tabata
• Specialty classes – dancing, hooping; kettlebells, martial arts
• Boomer specific programs – balance training
• Fitness training tools – go wear fit, fitbit, training peaks software
• Proper professional credentials
• Training for women and youth
2014- Federal Bills Pending
• Eunice Kennedy-Shriver Act reauthorizes funding for Special Olympics
• Healthy Kids from Day One-three year CDC pilot program to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity for children 0-5 in child care settings
• National Foundation on Physical Fitness and Sports Establishment Act for the council to solicit private contributions to improve and promote physical activity throughout the country
Shape of the Nation Report
• 14% of students do not participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on any day
• 48% of students did not attend P.E. classes in an average week
• 32% of students watched TV 3+ hours per day
• 31% of students used computers 3+ hours per day
Exercise Physiology
• effects of exercise on the body
Exercise Physiology Areas of Study
o Cardiac rehab
o Ergogenic aids
o Disease and health
o Environmental effects of exercise
o Exercise biochemistry
o Effects of nutrition
o Effects of training programs (intervals)
Health Fitness – Components
1. Cardiorespiratory endurance
2. Flexibility
3. Muscular endurance
4. Muscular strength
5. Body composition
Motor Fitness Components
1. Agility
2. Balance
3. Coordination
4. Power
5. Speed
Exercise Prescription
1. Intensity
2. Duration
3. Frequency
4. Mode
Training Heart Rate
1. 220 – Age = Max Heart Rate
2. Multiply Max Heart rate by .60 and .80 = training heart rate
Fitness Training Principles
• Overload
• Specificity
• Initial Fitness Level
• Progression
• Warm-up and Cool-down
• Individual Differences
• Safety

1. Pharmacological
a. Amphetamines
b. Cocaine
2. Physiological
a. Blood doping
3. Psychological
a. Music
4. Mechanical
a. Advanced equipment
5. Nutritional
a. Vitamins/Protein supplements

Sport Management Careers
1. Athletic Administration
2. Campus Recreation
3. Industrial/Company Recreation
4. Management of Sport Club/Health Club
5. Facilities Management
6. Retailing
7. Professional Team Organizations
8. Sports Marketing
Facilities Management
1. Engineering
2. Communications
3. Concessions Management
4. Administration
5. Marketing
6. Team Operations
o Public Relations
o Media Relations
Concessions Management
o Catering
o Branded Products
o Human Resources
o Legal
o Security
o Sponsorships
o Group Sales
o Ticket Operations
o Merchandising/Licensing
Team Operations
o Administration
o Coaching
o Scouting
o Travel
o Media
Psychology of Sport
Scientific study of people and their behavior in sports and exercise activities
Focuses on the mental aspects of sports performance
Deals w/:
o Violence and aggression
o Anxiety
o Motivation
o Body image
o Adherence
Sport Psychologists
have Ph. D. and work at all levels of the sport
Psychological Principles and their relation to sport/exercise
– Transfer of training
– Motivation
– Expectations
– Practice Conditions
-Mimetics/mental injury
Thorndicke’s Law of Effect
self-fulfilling prophecy
Sociology of Sport
Relationship of sport to society
Deals w/ institutions of society to sport women in sport, race and sport, ect
Required course for SM option
Measurement- Fact Finding
Types of Evaluation
Characteristics of a Profession
A body of specialized knowledge, specialized skills, and attainment of needed competencies
Involves activities essentially intellectual
Requires extended professional preparation
Criteria for entry: accredited program, test, ect
Demands continuous knowledge and skills
Can afford a life career
Has a strong professional organization which sets its own standards, governs its members ect
Dedication to helping other and serving people
Recognition by society for its contribution to the welfare
Professional Associations
American Alliance for Health, P.E., Recreation and Dance
American Academy of Physicians Assistants
American Council on Exercise
American College of Sports Medicine
American Medical Association
American Physical Therapy Association
National Athletic Trainers Association
National Strength and Conditioning Association
North American Society for Sport Management
Sports Lawyers Association
Stadium Managers Association
Sport and Recreation Law Association
Fitness Certifications
ACSM – American College of Sports Medicine
ACE – American Council on Exercise
NATA – National Athletic Association
The Cooper Institute for Aerobic Research
National Strength and Conditioning Association
National Federation of Professional Trainers (NEPT)
Aerobics and Fitness Association of America (AFAA)
American Senior Fitness Association
Aquatic Exercise Association
American Red Cross/American Heart Association
Career Opportunities
• Teaching careers
• Coaching careers
• Fitness and health related careers
• Sports medicine careers
• Rehabilitation/Therapy careers
• Sport management careers
• Sport media careers
• Performance careers
• Sport related careers
Growth of fitness areas b/t 2010 and 2020
– Ergonomics
– Study anatomy, kinesiology, biomechanics, physiology, psychology, industrial hygiene, – certification programs
– Evaluates desks and working surfaces, chairs, monitors, keyboards, wrist supports, telephones
– Standards set by OSHA – Occupation Safety and Health Administration-federal agency
the study of the interaction b/t the human body and machines (equipment and tasks) to promote worker health, safety, and efficiency
Working your way to your first job
– Take part-time jobs during the year and full time jobs in the summer
– Get involved in a variety of activities outside of the classroom; leadership
– Have a mentor
– Dress the part
– Practice professional language
– Think what you can do for the job; not what the job can do for you
Skills to Learn in College
– Work well with others- Be a team player
– Know your numbers
– Be responsible for yourself – strong motivation; time management skills
– Get as many credentials and certifications as you can
– Become an expert in computer programs
– Be a positive role model
– Be ready to work hard
– Working with the “whole” person
– Work with a diversity of people

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