Flashcards for Chapter 7 in Chemistry

What is an anion?
a negative ion
What is a cation?
a positive ion
What is a chemical bond?
a strong attractive force between atoms/ions in a compound
What is a crystal lattice?
a 3-D geometric arrangement of particles in which each positive ioin is surrounded by negative ions and each negative ion is surrounded by positive ions; vary in shape due to sizes and relative numbers of the ions bonded. Is very rigid
What is an electrolyte?
an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity
What is an ionic bond?
Chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between a cation and an anion
What is an ionic compound?
coumpound that contains ionic bonds
What is lattice energy?
the energy required to separate 1 mole of the ions of an ionic compound
What is electorstatic attraction?
the attraction between particles of opposite charge
What is a formula unit?
the simplest ratio/ basic unit of a compound
What is a monatomic ion?
ions that only have one atom
what is an oxidation number?
indicates the number of electrons that an element gains or losses as it bonds
What is a polyatomic ion?
an ion made up of two or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit with a net charge
What is an alloy?
a mixture of elements that has metallic properties
What is a delocalized electron?
electrons that are free to move around
Explain the electron sea model.
Proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valece electrons to form a “sea” of electrons
What is a metallic bond?
the attraction of a metallic cation for a delocalized electron
What two things are involved in an ionic bond?
a metal and a nonmetal
What is the differece between a substitutional alloy and an interstitial alloy?
A substitutional is where some of the atoms in the original metallic solid are replaced by other metals of similar size. Interstitial alloys are where small holes in a metallic crystal are filled with smaller atoms. Also Substitutional has properties of both metals and Interstitial has a change in physical properties.
How is a cation formed?
an atom loses its electrons to gain stability
How is an anion formed?
an atom gains electroms to achieve stability
What charge do noble gases have?
a neutral charge
What causes cations and anions to attract?
electrostatic force
What do cations and anions form?
a crystal lattice
What is the relationship between an atom’s atomic radius and its lattice energy?
the smaller the radius, the larger the lattice energy
What is the relationship between an atom’s oxidation number and its lattice energy?
the larger the oxidation number, the larger the lattice energy
Why is a metal malleable/ductile/coductor for electricity and heat?
because of the sea of electrons
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