Flame tests etc

FLAME TEST

Sodium ion

Yellow
FLAME TEST

Calcium ion

Red
FLAME TEST

lithium/Strontium ion

yellow-red
FLAME TEST

Barium ion

Pale green
FLAME TEST

Potassium ion

lilac
HEATING TEST

gas produced = C02

Carbonate of metal other than group 1
HEATING TEST

gas produced = water vapour

Hydrated salts
HEATING TEST

gas produced = oxygen and nitrogen dioxide

Nitrates (other than K or Na)
HEATING TEST

gas produced = oxygen

Nitrate of group 1 (other than Li)
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = oxygen

colourless gas
relights glowing splint
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = CO2

colourless gas
white precipitate formed in lime water
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Ammonia

Colourless gas
Damp red litmus -> blue
White smoke formed with hydrogen chloride
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Nitrogen dioxide

brown gas
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Hydrogen

Colourless gas ignites with a pop!
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Hydrogen Chloride

Steamy fumes with moist air
acidic
White smoke with ammonia
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Chlorine

Pale green gas
bleaches damp litmus paper
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Bromine

Brown vapour
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = iodine

purple vapour
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON GASES

Gas = Steam (water)

cobalt chloride paper pink
ACTION OF DILUTE ACIDS (sulphuric acid and hydrochloric)

action of acid = CO2 evolved

carbonate
ACTION OF DILUTE ACIDS (sulphuric acid and hydrochloric)

action of acid = hydrogen evolved

metal
ACTION OF DILUTE ACIDS (sulphuric acid and hydrochloric)

action of acid = yellow solution turns orange

chromate (VI) to dichromate (VI)
ACTION OF DILUTE ACIDS (sulphuric acid and hydrochloric)

action of acid = sulfur dioxide evolved and pale yellow precipitate formed

thiosulphate
TESTS FOR REDUCING AGENTS

What do reducing agents do?

decolourise aqueous acidified potassium manganate

turn aqueous acidified potassium dichromate from orange to green

TESTS FOR REDUCING AGENTS

Reducing agents include: (3)

Iron (II) ions

Iodide ions

Hydrogen peroxide

TESTS FOR OXIDISING AGENTS

What do oxidising agents do?

liberate iodine as a brown solution or black solid from aqueous potassium iodide

iodine solution gives blue-black colouring in starch

TESTS FOR OXIDISING AGENTS

Oxidising agents include: (6)

acidified manganate ions
acidified dichromate ions
hydrogen peroxide
copper (II) ions
aqueous chlorine
aqueous bromine
SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

What is the test?

dilute sodium hydroxide solution added to solution containing metal ion
precipitate of the insoluble hydroxide will form
SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

white precipitate

magnesium, barium, strontium, calcium
SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

no precipitate

sodium, potassium
SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

no precipitate but ammonia evolved on warming

ammonium
BARIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

What is the test?

aqueous barium chloride forms precipitates of insoluble barium slats with anions
usually tests for SO4^2-
aqueous barium chloride usually used with dilute HCl
BARIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

anion = sulphate

White
BaS04
insoluble
BARIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

anion = sulphite

white
BaSo3
precipitate dissolves
BARIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

anion = carbonate

white
BaCO3
preipitate dissolves with effervenscence
SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION

What is the test?

Tests for halide ions
Anions that would interfere with the test are removed with dilute nitric acid before adding silver nitrate
Then aqueous ammonia both dilute and concentrated
SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION

anion = chloride

white

AgCl

dilute – soluble

SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION

anion = bromide

cream

AgBr

dilute – soluble in excess

concentrated – soluble

SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION

anion = iodide

yellow

AgI

dilute – insoluble

concentrated – insoluble

CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID

What is the test?

few drops added to solid halide
POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS
small scale and in fume cupboard
CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID

Halide = chloride

steamy fumes
vigorous reaction

HCl produced

CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID

halide = bromide

steamy fumes
brown vapour
vigorous

HBr produced

CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID

halide = iodide

steamy fumes
black solid
purple vapour
yellow solid
vigorous reaction
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