First Aid/ CPR Study Guide
What are signs that indicate a medical emergency?
unusual noise, sight, odor, appearance, behavior.
List some barriers to action
presence of other people, unsure of victim’s condition, type of injury or illness, fear of catching disease, fear of doing something wrong, being unsure when to call 911.
Name the 3 C’s
check, call, care.
scene safety, victims, bystanders, signs and clues, airway, breathing, circulation.
911 or EMS.
How long should you check a victim’s breathing?
Define: implied consent
to assume a victim would give permission to treat them if they were conscious.
Transmitting diseases key things
can be airborne, in a fluid, or vector (bite), injured person must be infected, rescuer has to have a break in skin, must be sufficient amount of pathogens.
a disease causing microorganism.
Care for first 2 minutes IF:
unconscious adult, adolescent, or infant, or witnessed collapse.
Call first FOR:
cardiac emergencies, drowning
victims, unwitnessed collapse.
Walking assist move
1 or 2 persons with a conscious person, use your body as a crutch, don’t use if suspected head, neck, or back injury.
Pack strap carry
use with conscious person, place person on your back and cross arms in front of you, don’t use if suspect head, neck, or back injury.
2 person seated carry
requires 2 people, use with conscious victim not seriously injured, interlock arms and place under knees to carry.
Use on unconscious or conscious person WITH suspected head, neck, or back injuries. keep head, neck, back, stable. grab clothing behind neck, pull to safety while supporting head in your forearms.
used to move unconscious person or conscious, support person on side and place blanket underneath, roll person back onto back and gather blanket at the head and move gently.
use when a person is too large, firmly grasp ankles and move backwards in straight line, DO NOT BUMP HEAD, CHECK SCENE!
Body mechanics to know
feet shoulder width apart, knees flexed, back straight, work in direction of your efforts, close to load, push and pull DON’T LIFT, get help, work in unison.
Water victims care
reach victim BUT KEEP YOURSELF SAFE FIRST, call 911, stablize victim face up place one arm under shoulders and one under hips, support victim in water until EMS arrives. *flip victim over if face down*
airway and lungs.
respiratory system job
supplies body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide by breathing.
common respiratory problems
asthma, respiratory distress, respiratory arrest.
heart, blood, blood vessels.
Which direction do arteries and veins pump blood?
arteries pump blood away from the heart, veins pump towards.
circulatory system job
transports nutrients and oxygen to body cells and removes waste products.
common circulatory problems
cardiac arrest, heart attacks, blood clots.
nervous system organs
brain, spinal cord, nerves.
nervous system job
transmits messages to and from the brain to regulate all of the body and its’ systems.
common nervous system problems
paralysis, seizures, strokes, concussions, fainting, loss of consciousness.
bones, ligaments, tendons.
What can you sprain and strain?
sprain ligaments and muscles, strain tendons.
provides framework, protects internal organs, allows movement and heat.
common musculo-skeletal problems
breaks, tears, sprains, strains, and fractures.
integumentary system organs
skin, nails, hair.
integumentary system job
prevents infection, dehydration, and regulates body temperature.
common integumentary system problems
breaks, tears, punctures, lacerations, abrasions.
digestive system organs
mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder.
digestive system job
breaks down food to supply body with energy.
common digestive system problems
ulcers, choking, allergies, food poisioning.
endocrine system organs
endocrine system job
secretes hormones into blood.
common endocrine problem
genitourinary system organs
uterus, genitilia, kidneys, bladder.
genitourinary system job
reproduction, removes waste, and regulates water balance.
common genitourinary system problems
What is the medical term for a bruise?
List body cavities from head to toe
cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic.
common breathing emergencies
choking, illnesses, asthma, electrocution, shock, drowning, heart attack, allergic reactions, drugs, emphysema, bronchitis, croup, hyperventilating.
a condition that narrows the breathing passages and makes it difficult to breathe, caused by a spasm of the muscle lining in the bronchi.
asthma signs and symptoms
wheezing, difficulty breathing, painful breathing.
medications (inhaler, fresh air).
a disease resulting in inflammation of the lining of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.
bronchitis signs and symptoms
persistent cough, chest tightness, difficulty breathing.
a severe allergic reaction that can restrict and swell a person’s chest cavity and cause death.
anaphylatic shock causes/symptoms
caused by insect stings, food, medication. symptons include chest tightness, swelling of throat, face, and neck, difficulty breathing, dizziness, confusion.
anaphylatic shock treatment
epipen, call 911.
a common viral illness in children that causes swelling of the tissues around the vocal cords, characterized by a “seal bark” type of cough.
fresh cool air, steamy bathroom.
a bacterial infection that causes severe inflammation of the epiglottis.
epiglottitis signs and treatment
appear ill, fever, sore throat, sitting up to breathe, drooling, difficulty swallowing. treat with antibiotics.
occurs when breathing is faster than normal, imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide, occurs in nervous people, people who are in shock and tense.
relax the victim.
general respiratory distress care
call 911, help victim rest comfortably, monitor abc’s, keep victim from overheating or chilling, assist victim in taking medications.
Respiratory distress can lead to…?
respiratory arrest and body systems deterioration, cardiac arrest, death.
2 types of choking
Stopping choking techniques
5 back blows, 5 abdominal thrusts
heart attack symptoms
chest pain, chest heaviness, pale skin, weak pulse, nausea, vomitting, pain radiating to left arm, indigestion, short of breath, sweating.
heart attack care
call 911, rest in comfortable posistion, take nitroglycerine under tongue if available (1 every 3 minutes), montior abc’s.
adult cpr guidelines
2 hands on sternum, compress 1 1/2 inches-2inches, 30-2 compression to breaths rate, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.
child cpr guidelines
1 hand on chest, (rescue breathing is 1 every 3 seconds), compress 1 inch-1 1/2 inches, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.
infant cpr guidelines
2 fingers, (rescue breathing is 1 every 3 seconds), mouth covers over mouth and nose, compress 1/2inch-1inch, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.
cardiac chain of survival
early recognition, early cpr, early defibrilation, early advanced medical care.
When do you stop cpr?
try not to however, if the scene becomes unsafe, victim shows signs of life, aed becomes available, another trained responder arrives, too exhausted to continue.
causes of cardiac arrest
drugs, respiratory arrest, drowning, electrocution, weak heart, suffocation, firearm injuries, poison, genetic history factors.
process which blood thickens at a wound site to seal a hole or tear and stop bleeding.
pressure applied on a wound to control bleeding
loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time.
signs of internal bleeding
discoloration, tenderness, swollen, hard tissues, anxiety, restlessness, rapid breathing, cool, moist, pale skin, nausea, vomitting, excessive thirst, declining level of consciousness.
closed wound general care
apply direct pressure, apply cold pack, call 911 if severe.
minor open wound general care
wash out, apply sterile dressing, direct pressure, antiobiotic ointment.
major open wound general care
do NOT wash, apply clean dressing, apply direct pressure, bandage, call 911.
embedded objects wound care
do NOT remove object unless it’s preventing breathing, use bulky bandages, be careful not to further move object, control bleeding, call 911.
causes of burns
heat, chemicals, electricity, solar radiation.
first degree burns signs and symptoms
red, dry skin, area is painful, area is swollen (superficial).
second degree burns signs and symptoms
red, wet, skin, open and closed blisters, skin spotted and blotchy, painful, swollen, (deep).
third degree burns signs and symptoms
brown or charred skin, tissue underneath appear white, painful, may be life threatening*.
critical burns locations
face, hands, feet, genitals, airway.
general burns care
stop burning process, cool the burned area, cover the burned area with a bandage, minimize shock, call 911 if third degree.
rocky mountain spotted fever
a serious tick borne disease caused by wood or dog ticks
rocky mountain spotted fever signs and symptoms
spotted rash on ankles or wrists that spreads, fevers, chills, severe headaches, joint and muscle aches. *early treatment important because victim could die of kidney failure!!*
lyme disease signs and symptoms
tick bite, red rash in bulls eye appearance, fevers, chills, headaches, fatigue, flu-like symptons. *contracted by deer ticks*
stings and bites signs and symptoms
stinger present, bite marks, pain, local swelling, rash, hives, nausea, difficulty breathing, itchiness.
stings and bites general care
remove stinger by scraping with fingernail or credit card, never use tweezers (only with ticks), wash wound, cover with bandage, apply ice, watch for allergic reactions.
spider bites signs and symptoms
bite marks, black widow bites exhibit sharp pain, brown recluse bites swell and blister, pain, cramping, nausea, vomitting, difficulty breathing/swallowing, sweating, irregular heartbeat.
spider bites care
call 911 as soon as possible, antivenin!
snake bites signs and symptoms
fang bite marks, pain, burning, swelling, tingling, numbness.
snake bite care
wash, apply ice, immobolize, call 911, if pit viper you need antivenin.
jellyfish sting care
soak in vinegar, alcohol, or baking soda paste (with water).
stingray sting care
immobolize, soak in warm water until pain is gone, call 911 if severe.
tetanus signs and symptoms
irritability, headache, fever, painful muscle spasms, symptons occur 3 to 5 days after bites/cuts. call 911.
head, neck, back injuries causes
fall from heigh greater than own, motor vehicle accidents, blunt forces, violence, lightning.
head injury symptoms
change in level of consciousness, pain, pressure, tingling sensation, partial/complete paralysis, blood from ears/nose, seizures, vomitting, nausea, impaired vision, headache, loss of balance, bruising around head/eyes.
inline stabilization warnings
never use if head is severely angled, victim has pain, pressure, or muscle spasms, there is resistance when attempting to move head!
spine parts from top to bottom
cervic, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx.
eye injury general care
keep on back, do not remove any embedded objects, apply dressing around object, stabilize object with cup, call 911.
common ear injuries
soft tissue damage, eardrums, loss of hearing.
ear injury general care
do NOT apply direct pressure, cover lightly, call 911.
scalp injury care
control bleeding with direct pressure, DO NOT apply direct pressure if skull feels spongy (indicates skull fracture).
check injury care
if bleeding inside of the mouth place dressings on inside and apply direct pressure, remove any embedded objects ONLY if impairs breathing, pull object in same direction it entered, apply pressure outside of mouth, sit and lean victim forward.
force to head, causes temporary impairment of brain, may lose consciousness, memory, have severe headaches.
rest, medical help – could be severe!
nose injury care
sit victim with head forward, pinch nose, apply ice, call 911 if caused by high blood pressure (bleeding).
chest injury signs and symptoms
breathing difficulty, severe pain, obvious deformity, bruising, discoloration of skin, coughing up blood.
chest injury general care
posistion in comfortable way to aid breathing, if ribs are broken bind arm to injured side.
sucking chest wound care
apply occlusive dressing, treat other life threatening injuries, keep one corner of dressing open.
abdominal injury signs and symptoms
severe pain, external bleeding, nausea, vomitting, bruising, pale ashen moist skin, weakness, thirst, rigid abdomen, organs protruding from abs.
abdominal injury general care
lie victim on back, bend knees to reduce pain, call 911, control bleeding.
pelvis injury signs and symptons
protruding organs, pain, bruising, bleeding, severed body parts… same care as abdominal injuries.
blankets, towels, pillows, slings.
boards, metal strips, folded magazines.
refers to the use of the body like arms, legs.
traction with pulleys and weights.
slings and cravats
triangular bandages used to support arms, forearms, dressings, and bandaids.
splinting key things
support injured thing in posistion you found it, cover open wounds, check area above and below color/warmth/feeling, apply splint above and below, sling into place not directly over injury, check fingers/toes for circulation, elevate if possible, rest, apply ice, prevent shock.
forearm, phalanges, carpals, metacarpals.
clavicle, scalpula, humerous, sprains, fractures, dislocation of shoulder.
shoulder injury general care
control bleeding, support in comfortable posistion, if away from body use pillow to support under arm, create sling splint, ice, call 911 if broken.
humerous, radius, ulna, fractures.
arm injury general care
immobolize from shoulder to elbow, control bleeding, sling, if elbow injured DO NOT MOVE, call 911 if you can’t find pulse.
lower extremity injuries
femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal, metatarsals, phalanges.
femur fraction key signs
leg turned outward, muscle contracted, leg appears shorter, swollen, possible external bleeding.
lower extremity general care
control any bleeding, immobolize, rest in comfortable posistion, elevate if possible, support leg, monitor color/warmth/feeling, call 911 if suspected broken.
sprains, cuts, bruises, fractures, dislocations.
knee injury general care
control bleeding, support/eleveate knee, ice, rest, splint if it can be straightened.
ankle and foot injuries
sprains, fractures, tears, strains.
ankle and foot injury general care
control bleeding, immobolize with soft splint, check toes for warmth/feeling/color, elevate, ice, call 911 if suspected broken.
temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain.
fainting signs and symptoms
complete loss of consciousness, temporary reduction of blood to head, collapse.
fainting general care
call 911, posistion on flat surface, monitor abc’s, loosen clothing, elevate legs.
disruption of blood flow to brain that can cause death or serious brain damage by a clotted artery.
stroke signs and symptoms
altered level of consciousness, look/feels ill, sudden weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or being understood, blurred vision, unequal pupils, severe headache, ringing in ears, drooling, loss of bladder control.
stroke general care
call 911 fast, monitor abc’s, clear fluids from mouth, reassure and comfort, don’t give food.
2 types of strokes
transit ischimic attack and cerebreal vascular accident.
List ways to prevent a stroke
control blood pressure, diet, do not smoke, exercise regularly, control diabetes.
the pancreas doesn’t produce unsulin that helps with glucose buildup.
diabetes type 1
juvenile diabetes, insulin dependent diabetes where the body produces little or no insulin. must inject insulin into the body.
diabetes type 2
adult onset diabetes, noninsulin dependent, body produces insulin but no enough, is more common, can be controlled by diet.
hypo is when the insulin level is too high and sugar level is too low, hyperglycemia is too low and sugar is too high.
signs and symptons hypo/hyperglycemia
flushed skin, hot, dry, skin, looks ill, sweet, fruity, body odor, irregular breathing, abnormal pulse.
diabetes general care
if conscious give sugary foods or drinks if loss of consciousness call 911.
sudden loss of body control can be chronic called epilepsy, caused by fevers (febrile), preceded by by aura, feels and looks ill.
seizures signs and symptons
changes in level of consciousness, convulsions, fluids from mouth.
seizure general care
ALLOW to happen, protect victim from injury self, monitor abc’s, clear mouth of fluids by posistioning ons ide, call 911 (especially if repeated, pregnany, in water, or never had them before).
Poisons depend on:
type/amount of substance, how and where the poison entered, time elapsed, weight, size, age of victim.
clues of poisoning
vomit, open drug containers, drug paraphernilia, color of skin, irregular breathing, blue lips, consciousness, alcohol bottles, crushed plants, food.
poisoning signs and symptons
nausea, vomiting, chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweating, seizures, skin discoloration, diarrhea, burns around mouth, headaches.
What is used to induce vomiting?
syrup of ipecac.
What does activated charcoal do?
neutralizes stomach and absorbs poisons.
When should vomitting not be induced?
victim is unconscious, having seizures, pregnant in the last trimester, ingested corrosive substance.
4 ways to be poisoned
ingested, absorbed, inhaled, injected.
types of absorbed poisons
poison ivy, oak, sumac, wet and dry chemicals, lawn fertilizers.
absorbed poisons general care
wash area with calamine lotion, benadryl, corticosteroids.
foods (bacterial and chemical)
ingested poisons general care
antibiotics, prevent by properly cooking and handling food.
carbon monoxide, paints, glues, gasoline.
inhaled poison general care
get to fresh air, treat breathing conditions, call 911 if victim becomes or is unconscious.
frostbite signs and symptons
cold, discolored skin, lack of feeling, waxy look, blisters, can be just nip, superficial, or deep.
frostbite general care
handle very carefully, do NOT rub area, place in warm waters, bandage loosely, if fingers and toes place gauze in between each phalange.
hypothermia signs and symptons
anything below 95 degrees, shivering, slow irregular heart beat, numbeness, apathy, numbness, change in level of consciousness, breathing difficulties.
hypothermia general care
remove wet clothing, call 911, gradually rewarm, use dry blankets, give warm liquid if conscious.
heat cramps signs and symptons
heavy sweating, rapid onset, pain, muscle spasms.
heat cramps general care
rest in a cool place, drink cool water, stretch muscles.
heat exhaustion signs and symptons
cool, moist, pale, skin, headaches, nausea, dizziness, weakness.
heat stroke signs and symptons
sweating stops, red, hot, dry, skin, rapid rise temperature, rapid or weak pulse, changes in consciousness, body systems fail, can lead to cardiac arrest.
heat stroke and exhaustion general care
ice packs under knees, wrists, call 911 if condition worsens, fan, cool body in any way.