Final Review

Chemistry
The study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass
A measure of the quantity of matter in a substance.
Physical Property
A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing its identity.
Physical Change
A change in a substance that does not involve the change in its identity.
Solid
Matter that has a definite volume and definite shape.
Liquid
Matter that has definite volume and an indefinite shape.
Gas
Matter that has indefinite shape and volume.
Chemical Property
Relates to the reactivity of a substance or a substances ability that undergoes changes into different substances.
Pure Substance
A chemical that has a fixed composition throughout. You can’t physically separate it.
Precision
A measure of how close measurements are to one another.
Accuracy
A measure of how close the measurement is to the true or accepted value.
Density
D=M/V
A measure of how the amount of mass an object contains in a given amount of volume.
Atomic Number
Identification number of an element.
How many protons and electrons are in an atom.
Mass Number
Tells the mass number of an atom in a.m.u.
Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Isotopes
Different numbers of neutrons.
Period
Horizontal row of elements on the periodic table of elements.
Group
A vertical row of elements on the periodic table of elements.
Avogadro’s Number
6.02 x 10^23
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
Frequency
How many wave-cycles are completed per second. Measured in hertz (Hz).
Quantum
Smallest amount of energy an object can absorb or release.
Photon
A quantum of energy in the form of light.
Orbital Shapes
S=sphere
P=kissing pears
D=cloverleaf
Speed of Light/ Equation
C= “lamda” (v)
C= speed of light (3 x 10^8 m/s)
“lamda” = wavelength
v = frequency
Hunds Rule
for orbitals of equal energy orbital must be equally filled.
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