Final Practice

It is not unreasonable to assume that in ancient times, signs of mental illness were believed to be caused by __________.
demons

According to family, twin, and adoption studies, a person is at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia _________
if he or she has an identical twin diagnosed with the disorder

The emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver is called _______
attachment

Mary’s parents want her to put her books in her bookcase. At first, they praise her for putting the books together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase. When she gets the books on top of the bookcase, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase. This is an example of ________.
shaping

Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs, he discovers his cat has knocked over a plant stand. His body begins to relax and return to normal. Which part of his nervous system is responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state?
parasympathetic nervous system

Every deliberate action you make, such as pedaling a bike, walking, scratching, or smelling a flower, involves neurons in the ______ nervous system.
somatic

You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today’s lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture?
bias

An advantage to group therapy is that groups ______.
are a source of social support

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the participants who smoke a cigarette without nicotine comprise the ________
control group

Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
difficulty of task

Anna Nicole weighed about 125 pounds most of her adult life. However, it seemed that whenever Anna Nicole gained weight, it was easy to lose and get back to 125. But when she wanted to go below 125, it took forever, and even the slightest deviation from her diet got her back to 125. What explanation would you give Anna Nicole?
125 is her weight set point

Mary, who has a great fear of flying, has been instructed by her behavior therapist to take a brief ride in an actual airplane. If Mary follows her therapist’s instructions, then she’ll be engaged in ________
in vivo exposure

A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ________
explanation

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding research into the relationship between violent video games and aggression in children?
playing violent video games caused increased aggression

Rats that have a damaged _________ will show no fear when placed next to a cat
amygdala

________ has been used successfully in helping children who have a fear of going to the dentist, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and phobias.
modeling

When one thinks of “value judgment” in relation to personality, one is thinking about ____________.
character

Which of the following is NOT one of the processes associated with social identity theory?
authoritarianism

Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the __________ is held constant.
independent variables

which of the following brain structures has been identified as being particularly important in one’s acting in a prosocial manner?
the temporoparietal junction

Which of the following statements would best be associated with Carol Dweck
failure is a good way to learn

Which element in Freud’s personality theory contains the conscience?
superego

Which is the best description of the vestibular senses?
They have to do with movement and body position

What term do social psychologists use for the process of making people in an out-group responsible for the problems of people in the in-group?
scapegoating

Luc said, “I don’t care what I do as long as I am in control!” What need is this?
need for power

The textbook suggests that Freudian theory, though controversial, has had an impact on many things seen in today’s society. Which of the following is NOT cited by the book as having been influenced by Freud?
pro sports

Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients’ unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients’ disordered emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using ________.
psychoanalysis

Frank and Gina are looking at an abstract painting in a museum. Gina describes objects and people she thinks she sees in the painting. Frank says, “It’s a bunch of paint thrown on a canvas.” Gina responds, “No, there is so much here that you just don’t see.” During lunch, they agree that their experience reminds them of what concept they learned in introductory psychology?
projective testing

After a head injury, a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in the ________ lobe.
occipital

in Freud’s theory, the id is to fun as the superego is to ____________
guilt

When asked to recall the date of John Kennedy’s assassination, Peter draws a blank; however, when asked whether it was October 24, 1962, November 22, 1963, or February 1, 1965, he correctly answers with the second of the choices. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of _________.
retrieval cues

According to Carl Rogers, the __________ is how people think they should be
ideal self

According to Piaget, _______ represents the beginning of the child’s language development and symbolic thought
object permanence

Jack said, “I want to rule the world.” What type of need is this?
need for power

Which of the following is one of the bodily fluids that ancient Greeks linked to abnormal behaviors?
black bile

If a child successfully navigates this stage of psychosocial development, they will make decisions and act independently
autonomy vs doubt

In operant conditioning, ________ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and the repetition of a voluntary response.
reinforcement

According to Abraham Maslow, developing one’s potential to its fullest extent results in ________.
self-actualization

An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to ________
olfactory bulb

The term photon refers to ________.
a tiny packet of light waves

Neuroplasticity is most evident in which of the following circumstances?
when we learn something new or store new information

Double-blind studies control for ________.
both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect

Sydney said, “I don’t care much about my grades as long as I’m the most popular girl in the class!” What need is this?
need for affiliation

Jell-O uses the slogan, “There’s always room for Jell-O.” To which theory of motivation is this slogan most relevant?
incentive

In the partial report method of Sperling’s study of sensory memory, the participants were to report _________.
one of three lines of letters as indicated by the sound of a tone immediately presented after the letters had disappeared

Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association?
participants must be allowed to make an informed decision

Unlike other schedules of reinforcement, ________ results in a “scalloped” pattern of responses on a cumulative frequency graph.
fixed interval

Jesse still has very vivid memories of his first romantic kiss. This example illustrates a specific form of _________ memory known as a(n) _________ memory.
episodic; autobiographical

What term is used to describe a child’s inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes except his or her own?
egocentrism

According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the ______.
phallic stage

Which aspect of culture tends to decrease rates of conformity?
lower levels of collectivism

_________ is the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the retrieval of newer, more recently learned material.
Proactive interference

Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?
structuralism; observable behavior

The idea that pain signals must pass through a type of “doorway” in the spinal cord is referred to as the _______
gate control theory of pain

According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the ______.
collective unconscious

the early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called ________.
cognitive psychology

The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy is the __________ between client and therapist
therapeutic alliance

Edward starts to worry about telling his therapist about his drinking. He is afraid that the therapist will get mad at him like his mother used to. Edward has started relating to his therapist as he related to his mother. Edward is experiencing ________.
transference

After Pavlov’s dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called ________.
extinction

Which of the following statements is a criticism that one might legitimately make about the humanistic perspective of personality?
It paints too rosy a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature

Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as ____________
hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior

Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI Joe action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen?
extinction

Each retina of the eye has about ______ million rods.
100

Free association is a technique used in ______ therapy.
psychoanalytic

The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands is called the ________ nervous system.
autonomic

Which type of long-term memory is most resistant to loss with Alzheimer’s disease?
procedural

_______ is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
DSM

Iram is afraid of snakes. In an effort to help him overcome his fear, his therapist has him enter a room where there are dozens of snakes and has him hold them. Iram is not permitted to leave the room until the therapy session is completed. Iram’s therapist is using ______.
flooding

According to Freud’s theory of personality development, there are ________ stages that each person must pass through
5

Which of the following is a basic goal of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
to help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts

Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are ______
cones

According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in learning new skills and knowledge, the result may be the development of a sense of _______
inferiority

What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back

The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rainforests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ________.
apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American

The pursuit of an activity for an outcome that is separate from the person is called ________.
extrinsic motivation

A _________ is a method of reinforcement that uses a formal written agreement in which the goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
contingency contract

Steve’s psychiatrist notes that Steve is experiencing a disruption of the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, and identity. Therefore, Steve most likely has a(n) ________ disorder
dissociative

A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ________ and, thus ________ the probability of a response.
removed, increasing

All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT ____________.
noticing
defining an emergency
taking responsibility
diffusion of responsibility (Correct)

The process by which unchanging information from the senses of taste, touch, smell, and vision is “ignored” by the sensory receptor cells themselves is called _________
sensory adaptation

In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make “my way or nothing” statements?
rational emotive behavior therapy

In any given year, about ______ percent of adults over the age of 18 suffer from a mental disorder.
26

The hormone associated with aggression seems to be ___________.
testosterone

Christa and Sal are anticipating the birth of their first baby. Before the baby arrives, they want to fix up the nursery with new wallpaper. They seek the advice of a developmental psychologist. What is she likely to tell them?
Newborns prefer to look at complex three-dimensional patterns rather than simple one-dimensional ones.

The part of the brain that seems to influence emotions such as fear and pleasure is the ________.
amygdala

The classic Robber’s Cave study showed that prejudice can be reduced by ________.
cooperating to meet a mutually beneficial goal

Which type of love is defined as passion only?
infatuation

Remembering your first day of college classes is an example of _________ memories
episodic

Ethan is an award-winning swimmer. His desire to compete and win is part of his need for ________.
achievement

John Watson offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the ________ in his study.
conditioned stimulus

Homeostasis is most like which of the following?
thermostat

Alice is typing her term paper in the computer lab. Although a class is going on just a few feet away, she does not seem to notice. Which part of the brain allows Alice to focus on her typing and ignore the distractions that surround her?
reticular formation

Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic, with various symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?
panic attack

A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer’s family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to provide a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write?
anterograde amnesia

Emily and her husband are thrilled as they peer into Emily’s uterus by means of an ultrasound. The physician reports that the pregnancy appears normal, and that their baby’s fingers, toes, heart, and circulatory system are developing as expected. The couple learns that the baby is only an inch long. Given this information, the current stage of prenatal development is the _______.
embryonic period

Which statement is most consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?
im happy bc i laugh

Which defense mechanism figured prominently in the theory of Alfred Adler?
compensation

Diseases carried by recessive genes are inherited when _______
a child inherits two recessive genes, one from each parent

Pezdek and colleagues found that for a person to interpret thoughts and fantasies about false events as true memories, _________.
they must be plausible

What are two of the major classes of antidepressant drugs?
MAO inhibitors and tricyclics