It is not unreasonable to assume that in ancient times, signs of mental illness were believed to be caused by __________.
According to family, twin, and adoption studies, a person is at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia _________
if he or she has an identical twin diagnosed with the disorder
The emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver is called _______
Mary’s parents want her to put her books in her bookcase. At first, they praise her for putting the books together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase. When she gets the books on top of the bookcase, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase. This is an example of ________.
Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs, he discovers his cat has knocked over a plant stand. His body begins to relax and return to normal. Which part of his nervous system is responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state?
parasympathetic nervous system
Every deliberate action you make, such as pedaling a bike, walking, scratching, or smelling a flower, involves neurons in the ______ nervous system.
You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today’s lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture?
An advantage to group therapy is that groups ______.
are a source of social support
In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the participants who smoke a cigarette without nicotine comprise the ________
Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
difficulty of task
Anna Nicole weighed about 125 pounds most of her adult life. However, it seemed that whenever Anna Nicole gained weight, it was easy to lose and get back to 125. But when she wanted to go below 125, it took forever, and even the slightest deviation from her diet got her back to 125. What explanation would you give Anna Nicole?
125 is her weight set point
Mary, who has a great fear of flying, has been instructed by her behavior therapist to take a brief ride in an actual airplane. If Mary follows her therapist’s instructions, then she’ll be engaged in ________
in vivo exposure
A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ________
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding research into the relationship between violent video games and aggression in children?
playing violent video games caused increased aggression
Rats that have a damaged _________ will show no fear when placed next to a cat
________ has been used successfully in helping children who have a fear of going to the dentist, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and phobias.
When one thinks of “value judgment” in relation to personality, one is thinking about ____________.
Which of the following is NOT one of the processes associated with social identity theory?
Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the __________ is held constant.
which of the following brain structures has been identified as being particularly important in one’s acting in a prosocial manner?
the temporoparietal junction
Which of the following statements would best be associated with Carol Dweck
failure is a good way to learn
Which element in Freud’s personality theory contains the conscience?
Which is the best description of the vestibular senses?
They have to do with movement and body position
What term do social psychologists use for the process of making people in an out-group responsible for the problems of people in the in-group?
Luc said, “I don’t care what I do as long as I am in control!” What need is this?
need for power
The textbook suggests that Freudian theory, though controversial, has had an impact on many things seen in today’s society. Which of the following is NOT cited by the book as having been influenced by Freud?
Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients’ unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients’ disordered emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using ________.
Frank and Gina are looking at an abstract painting in a museum. Gina describes objects and people she thinks she sees in the painting. Frank says, “It’s a bunch of paint thrown on a canvas.” Gina responds, “No, there is so much here that you just don’t see.” During lunch, they agree that their experience reminds them of what concept they learned in introductory psychology?
After a head injury, a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in the ________ lobe.
in Freud’s theory, the id is to fun as the superego is to ____________
When asked to recall the date of John Kennedy’s assassination, Peter draws a blank; however, when asked whether it was October 24, 1962, November 22, 1963, or February 1, 1965, he correctly answers with the second of the choices. This example most clearly demonstrates the value of _________.
According to Carl Rogers, the __________ is how people think they should be
According to Piaget, _______ represents the beginning of the child’s language development and symbolic thought
Jack said, “I want to rule the world.” What type of need is this?
need for power
Which of the following is one of the bodily fluids that ancient Greeks linked to abnormal behaviors?
If a child successfully navigates this stage of psychosocial development, they will make decisions and act independently
autonomy vs doubt
In operant conditioning, ________ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and the repetition of a voluntary response.
According to Abraham Maslow, developing one’s potential to its fullest extent results in ________.
An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to ________
The term photon refers to ________.
a tiny packet of light waves
Neuroplasticity is most evident in which of the following circumstances?
when we learn something new or store new information
Double-blind studies control for ________.
both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect
Sydney said, “I don’t care much about my grades as long as I’m the most popular girl in the class!” What need is this?
need for affiliation
Jell-O uses the slogan, “There’s always room for Jell-O.” To which theory of motivation is this slogan most relevant?
In the partial report method of Sperling’s study of sensory memory, the participants were to report _________.
one of three lines of letters as indicated by the sound of a tone immediately presented after the letters had disappeared
Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association?
participants must be allowed to make an informed decision
Unlike other schedules of reinforcement, ________ results in a “scalloped” pattern of responses on a cumulative frequency graph.
Jesse still has very vivid memories of his first romantic kiss. This example illustrates a specific form of _________ memory known as a(n) _________ memory.
What term is used to describe a child’s inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes except his or her own?
According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the ______.
Which aspect of culture tends to decrease rates of conformity?
lower levels of collectivism
_________ is the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the retrieval of newer, more recently learned material.
Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?
structuralism; observable behavior
The idea that pain signals must pass through a type of “doorway” in the spinal cord is referred to as the _______
gate control theory of pain
According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the ______.
the early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called ________.
The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy is the __________ between client and therapist
Edward starts to worry about telling his therapist about his drinking. He is afraid that the therapist will get mad at him like his mother used to. Edward has started relating to his therapist as he related to his mother. Edward is experiencing ________.
After Pavlov’s dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called ________.
Which of the following statements is a criticism that one might legitimately make about the humanistic perspective of personality?
It paints too rosy a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature
Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as ____________
hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI Joe action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen?
Each retina of the eye has about ______ million rods.
Free association is a technique used in ______ therapy.
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands is called the ________ nervous system.
Which type of long-term memory is most resistant to loss with Alzheimer’s disease?
_______ is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
Iram is afraid of snakes. In an effort to help him overcome his fear, his therapist has him enter a room where there are dozens of snakes and has him hold them. Iram is not permitted to leave the room until the therapy session is completed. Iram’s therapist is using ______.
According to Freud’s theory of personality development, there are ________ stages that each person must pass through
Which of the following is a basic goal of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
to help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are ______
According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in learning new skills and knowledge, the result may be the development of a sense of _______
What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back
The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rainforests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ________.
apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American
The pursuit of an activity for an outcome that is separate from the person is called ________.
A _________ is a method of reinforcement that uses a formal written agreement in which the goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
Steve’s psychiatrist notes that Steve is experiencing a disruption of the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, and identity. Therefore, Steve most likely has a(n) ________ disorder
A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ________ and, thus ________ the probability of a response.
All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT ____________.
defining an emergency
diffusion of responsibility (Correct)
defining an emergency
diffusion of responsibility (Correct)
The process by which unchanging information from the senses of taste, touch, smell, and vision is “ignored” by the sensory receptor cells themselves is called _________
In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make “my way or nothing” statements?
rational emotive behavior therapy
In any given year, about ______ percent of adults over the age of 18 suffer from a mental disorder.
The hormone associated with aggression seems to be ___________.
Christa and Sal are anticipating the birth of their first baby. Before the baby arrives, they want to fix up the nursery with new wallpaper. They seek the advice of a developmental psychologist. What is she likely to tell them?
Newborns prefer to look at complex three-dimensional patterns rather than simple one-dimensional ones.
The part of the brain that seems to influence emotions such as fear and pleasure is the ________.
The classic Robber’s Cave study showed that prejudice can be reduced by ________.
cooperating to meet a mutually beneficial goal
Which type of love is defined as passion only?
Remembering your first day of college classes is an example of _________ memories
Ethan is an award-winning swimmer. His desire to compete and win is part of his need for ________.
John Watson offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the ________ in his study.
Homeostasis is most like which of the following?
Alice is typing her term paper in the computer lab. Although a class is going on just a few feet away, she does not seem to notice. Which part of the brain allows Alice to focus on her typing and ignore the distractions that surround her?
Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic, with various symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?
A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer’s family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to provide a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write?
Emily and her husband are thrilled as they peer into Emily’s uterus by means of an ultrasound. The physician reports that the pregnancy appears normal, and that their baby’s fingers, toes, heart, and circulatory system are developing as expected. The couple learns that the baby is only an inch long. Given this information, the current stage of prenatal development is the _______.
Which statement is most consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?
im happy bc i laugh
Which defense mechanism figured prominently in the theory of Alfred Adler?
Diseases carried by recessive genes are inherited when _______
a child inherits two recessive genes, one from each parent
Pezdek and colleagues found that for a person to interpret thoughts and fantasies about false events as true memories, _________.
they must be plausible
What are two of the major classes of antidepressant drugs?
MAO inhibitors and tricyclics