## Final Exam

 What is Chemistry?
 The Study of matter and its make up.
 What is the Scietific method?
 Scientific approach to solving problems
 What are the steps involved in the scientific  method?
 ask questions  do back ground research  construct a hypothesis do experiment analyze data and draw conclusion  communicate your results
 What is the difference between precision nad accuracy?
 Accuracy means getting a result that is close to the real answer. Precision means getting a similar result every time you try.
 Measurments always have?
 Uncertainty
 The last digit of a measurement is always?
 Uncertain
 Know how to count significant digits (or  figures)
 Zeros appearing between nonzero numbers are significant Zeros appearing infront of nonzero numbers are not significant  Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal are significant
 rounding off
 If the digit is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 do not change the rounding digit. All digits that are on the right hand side of the requested rounding digit will become 0. If the digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, your rounding digit rounds up by one number. All digits that are on the right hand side of the requested rounding digit will become 0.
 Know how to figure out the number of sig digits involving addition and subtraction.
 When quantities are being added or subtracted, the number of decimal places (not significant digits) in the answer should be the same as the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers being added or subtracted.
 Know how to figure out the number of sig. digits in calculations involving multuplication and division.
 In a calculation involving multiplication, division, trigonometric functions, etc., the number of significant digits in an answer should equal the least number of significant digits in any one of the numbers being multiplied, divided etc.
 What is scientific notation?
 0.00675 is the same as 6.75 x 10-3
 Basic unit ans symbols for the metric system
 millimeter   mm                        milligram  mg centemeter  cm                       gram      g meter  m                                kilogram   kg kilometer   km                         metric ton   t   milliliter    ml cubic centimeter  cm3 liter    L cubic meter  m3
 Know metric prefixes

 giga G 109 1 000 000 000 billion** mega M 106 1 000 000 million kilo k 103 1 000 thousand centi c 10-2 0.01 hundredth milli m 10-3 0.001 thousandth micro μ 10-6 0.000 001 millionth nano n 10-9 0.000 000 001 billionth**

 Converting measurements from one unit to the other
 Length: 10mm = 1cm             100cm = 1m            1000m = 1km   Mass: 1000mg = 1g          1000g = 1kg            1000kg = 1t   Volume: 1000mL = 1L              1cm3 = 1mL              1000L = 1m3
 What is Density?
 Measurement of the mass of an object per unit volume of the object.
 What is volumes measured By displacement?
 What is Energy?
 The ability to do work
 What is potential energy?
 stored energy
 What is kinetic energy?
 energy of motion
 What are the units of energy?
 Joule (J) of Calories (cal)
 What is temperature
 measures only kinetic energy
 Convert from oC, oF, K
 oF to oC = (F – 32) * 5/9 oF to oC = (F – 32) * 5/9 + 273.15   oC to oF = (C * 9/5) + 32 oC to K = C + 273.15   K to oF = (K – 273.15) * 9/5 + 32 K to oC = K – 273.15
 What is specific heat capacity?
 heat of a substance/element
 What is Calorie?/ Joule?
 energy measurements
 Heat equation
 q = m x s ΔT   —> Tf – Tin
 What are 3 Physical states?
 Solid, liquid, gas
 Names of the processes going form one physical state to another.
 solid to liquid –> melting liquid to gas –> evaporation gas to liquid –> condensation liquid to solid –> freezing
 What is a pure substance?
 material that cannot be seperated
 What is an element?
 specific substance that cannot be decomposed
 What is a compound
 material containing two or more elements or molecules
 what is a mixture?
 has a variable composition, can be seperated by physical methods.
 What is homogeneous mixture?
 uniform properties also called solution
 What is a heterogeneous mixture?
 has properties that varies from region to region
 What is a physical property
 with out altering composition
 what is a physical change
 going from solid to liquid or liquid to gas
 what is a chemical property?
 altering composition
 what is a chemical change?
 rearangment of atoms
 What is conserved during a chemical reaction?
 energy and mass
 relative charge and mass of an electron
 negative charge 9.1 x 10-31 kg
 relative charge and mass of the proton?
 positive charge 1.67 x 10-27 kg
 relative charge and mass of the neutron?
 neutral charge  same mass as proton
 how are subatomic particles arrange in an atom?
 Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus and electrons outside
 What is the atomic notation?
 [image]
 What are isotopes
 Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei,…
 what is atomic mass
 The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom…
 what is a group or family
 a group (also known as a family) is a vertical column in the periodic table of thechemical elements. There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table, including the d-blockelements, but excluding the f-block elements.
 what is a period or series
 elements are arranged in a series of rows (or periods) so that those with similar properties appear in a column
 what are representative elements?
 The Representative Elements are those elements within the first two families (Groups I and II on the far left) and the last six families or groups (on the right) of the Periodic Table.
 what are transition elements
 The Transition Metals are the elements in those Groups within the middle of the Table.
 Common name for group 1A
 Alkali metals
 common name for group 2A
 alkaline earth metals
 common name for group VIIA
 Halogens
 common name for group VIIIA
 inert gasses or noble gasses
 what is an ion
 an atom or a molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
 what is a cation
 a positively charged ion
 what is a anion
 a negatively charged ion
 common ionic charge for group 1A
 +1
 common ionic charge for group 2A
 +2
 common ionic charge for Al, Zn, Cd, Ag
 Al = +3 Zn = +2 Cd = +2 Ag = +1
 common ionic charge for group VIA (16)
 -2
 common ionic charge for group VIIA (17)
 -1
 what is a binary ionic compound
 a salt consisting of only two elements in which both elements are ions, a cation and an anion
 what are ternary ionic compounds
 a compound composed of at least three different types of atoms, usually a metal and a polyatomic ion which are iconically bonded.
 what is a binary molecular compound
 a combination of two non-metallic compounds
 What is the bohr model of the atom
 [image]
 what is ment by quantized energy levels
 there are certain discrete energy levels that an atom can attain, by promoting electrons to higher-energy orbitals.
 what is a valence electron
 an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
 what is ionization energy and its general trend in the periodic table
 ionization energy is the minimal energy required to remove one mole of electrons from gaseous atoms or ions   tend to increase while one progresses across a period because the greater number of protons (higher nuclear charge) attract the orbiting electrons more strongly, thereby increasing the energy required to remove one of the electrons
 what is the general trend in atomic radius in the periodic table
 atomic radii decreases along a row of elements as the additional electron is added to the same shell and the effective nuclear charge also increases ,which attracts the outermost electrons effectively towards the nuclei
 what is metallic character and its general trend in the periodic table
 a metal is a chemical element is a good conductor of both electricity and heat and forms cations and ionic bonds with non-metals   decreases as you move across a period in the periodic table from left to right
 what is chemical bonding
 an atraction between two molecules that allows the formation of chemical compounds
 what is a valence electron
 and electron in the outer shell of an atom which combine with other atoms to form molecules
 what is an ionic bond
 chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion the other atom gains an electron from another ion
 why is the radius of a cation always smaller than its parent atom
 becuase on the removal of an electron the effective charge on the nucleus increases the pull of the nucleus on the remaining electron increases
 why is the radius of an anion always larger than its parent atom
 becuase anions are formed do to the gain of electrons
 what is a covalent bond
 a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms and a molecule
 lewis dot structure
 what is a polar covalent bond
 a bond between two non-metals with different electronegativity
 what is a nonpolar covalent bond
 A bond in which electrons are shared between elements having a difference in electronegativity of less than 0.5
 what is electronegativity
 the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond.
 what is the VSEPR theory
 are a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion
 how to determine molecular polarity
 Step 1: Draw the molecular strulkcture Step 2: assign the polarity of each of the bonds step 3: adding the bond dipoles to determine the net molecular dipole step 4: decide if the bond dipoles cancle. if they do cancle, the molecule is nonpolar
 equal to 6.023 × 1023
 what is a mole
 is the amount of pure substance containing the same number of chemical units as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12.
 what is amu
 atomic mass unit
 how to calculate the molar mass of a molecule
 When you look up the atomic weight of oxygen, you find it is 16.00 g. Therefore, the molar mass of oxygen is: 2 x 16.00 g = 32.00 g
 convert the number of particles to moles and mass
 Mass x MM X Moles X (1mole = 6.022×1023 X # of particles
 stoichiometry involving mass
 Mass of A x MM of A x Moles of A x coefficients of bal equ. x Moles of B x MM of B x mass of B
 what is limiting reactant
 limits the amount of product that can be formed.
 what is thoeretical yeild
 the amount obtained in the reaction     multiply the amount of moles of the limiting reagent by the ratio of the limiting reagent and the synthesized product and by the molecular weight of the product.
 what is percent yeild
 amount of product obtained in a reaction   Percentage Yield =     mass of Actual Yield       x   100%                                      mass of Theoretical Yield
 what is acutal yeild
 amount of chemical that you actually make
 what is a solution
 a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent.
 what is a solute
 he minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
 what is a solvent
 The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
 what does “like dissolve like” mean
 polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
 how can pressure and temperature effect the solubility of gas in a liquid
 as the temp increased the solubility of gas decreases and pressure increases the solubility of the gas
 what are miscible liquids
 two or more liquids that can be mixed and will remain mixed under normal conditions
 what are immiscible liquids
 when two liquids so not mix with each other
 what happens when ionic solid molecules get dissolved in water
 the water molecules pull the ions apart
 what are some ways to speed up dissolving solid in liquid
 heat up the mixtrure stire the mixture add more solute than, filter out the excess crushn the solute to give it a greater surface area
 what does unsaturated mean
 contains carbon-carbon double bonds
 what is saturated mean
 containing max amount of solute   has no carbon-carbon bonds
 what is supersaturated
 increase of concentration beyond saturation point
 what is dilute
 Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it.
 what is concentrated
 A substance made by removing water or other diluting agent; a concentrated form of something, esp. food.
 what is mass percent concentration
 %(m/m)
 what is voume percent concentration
 %(v/v)
 what is mass by volume percent concentraion
 %(m/v)
 what is molariity
 concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
 what is dilution
 McVc=MdVd
 stoichiometry involving solutions
 M orV of A x (mol=MV(L) x Moles of A x coefficients of bal eq. x Moles of B x mol=MV(L) x Mor V of B
 what are four evidences for a chemical reaction
 1. temperature change 2.precipitate is observed if possible 3. formation of bubble or gas 4. color change
 general format of a chemical reaction
 reactant1 + reactant2 + … → product1 + product2 + …
 what are reactants
 A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.
 what are products
 A substance produced during a natural, chemical, or manufacturing process
 what are the labels for physical states
 (g) gas (l) liquid (s) solid (aq) dissolved in water
 what are seven elements that occur naturally as diatomic molecules
 Iodine (I), Bromine (Br), Chlorine (Cl), Florine (F), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), and Hydrogen (H)
 what are some driving forces of chemical reactions
 heat enery entropy equilibrium shift
 combination synthesis
 A + B —> AB Metal + nonmental —> ionic compound
 decomposition
 AB —> A + B Metal carbonate —> metal oxide + carbon Dioxide
 single replacement
 A + BC —-> AC + B   Metal1 + aq solution1 —> metal2 + aq solution2
 double replacement
 AB + CD —> AD + CB aq solution1 + aq solution2 –> aq solution3 + precipitate
 what is oxidation
 The process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
 what is reduction
 , is any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen)
 combustion reaction
 O2(g) is a reactant and heat is given off.
 solubility rule for ionic compound in water
 NO3– – All nitrates are soluble. Cl– – All chlorides are soluble except AgCl, Hg2Cl2, and PbCl2. SO42- – Most sulfates are soluble. Exceptions include BaSO4, PbSO4, and SrSO4. CO32- – All carbonates are insoluble except NH4+ and those of the Group 1 elements. OH– – All hydroxides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 elements, Ba(OH)2, and Sr(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble. S2- – All sulfides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 and Group 2 elements and NH4+. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Final Exam For Only \$13.90/page ORDER NOW
 what is an electrolyte
 The ionized or ionizable constituents of a living cell, blood, or other organic matter.
 what is a strong electrolyte
 a solute that completely, or almost completely, ionizes or dissociates in a solution
 what is a weak electrolyte
 an electrolyte that does not completely dissociate in solution.
 what is a nonelectrolyte
 is a substance that will not dissociate into charged ions when dissolved in water. will not conduct electricity
 what is a molecular equation
 s the equation where each compound the sum of oxidation numbers is 0.
 what is a complete ionic equation
 used to describe the chemical reaction while also clearly indicating which of the reactants and/or products exist primarily as ions
 what is a net ionic equation
 a chemical equation for a reaction which lists only those species participating in the reaction
 what is intermolecular force
 are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions)
 what are van der waals forces
 relatively weak electric forces that attract neutral molecules to one another in gases, in liquefied and solidified gases, and in almost all organic liquids and solids
 what are dipole-dipole forces
 are attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
 what are hydrogen bonds
 the electromagnetic attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine,
 what is the london dispersion force
 a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles
 what are the general properties of a liquid
 has definite volume takes shape of its container not compressable not in fixed position
 what is boiling point
 The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
 what is vapor pressure
 The pressure of a vapor in contact with its liquid or solid form.
 what is surface tension
 The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid,…
 what is viscosity
 The state of being thick, sticky, and semifluid in consistency, due to internal friction.
 properties of gas
 easy to compress expand to fill their containers occupy more space than liquids
 boyles law
 PV =constant P1V1 = P2V2
 V = constant x T V1T2 = V2T1
 Gay lussacs law
 P = constant x T P1T2 = P2T1
 combined gas law
 P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
 daltons partial pressure law
 Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ….
 what is kinetic theory of gases
 gases consist of small particles in random motion
 ideal gas law
 PV = nRT
 what is an ideal gas
 A hypothetical gas whose molecules occupy negligible space and have no interactions, and that consequently obeys the gas laws exactly.
 stoichiometry involving gas
 V of A (gas) x PV = nRT / stp 22.4 L/mol x moles of A x coeficients of bal eq. x mole of B x PV = nRT/ stp 22.4 L/mol x V of B
 general properties of acid
 taste sour turns blue litmus red destroys chemical property of bases conducts an electric current evolve hydrogen gas
 general properties of a base
 bitter taste does not change color of litmus paper destroy chemical properties of acids conduct an electri current feel slippery
 what is arrhenius acid
 a substance which releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Eg hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates to give H+ ions and Cl– ions and so is an acid
 what is arrhenius base
 is a substance that when added to water increases the number of OH- ions in the water
 what is a bronsted lowry base
 is defined as anything that accepts H1+ ions.
 what is bronsted lowry acid
 anything that releases H1+ ions
 what is conjugate acid-base pair
 refers to acids and bases with common features
 what is ionization constant of water
 Kw = 1 x 10-14
 what is pH
 measures how acidic or basic a substance is and ranges from 0 to 14.
 what is POH
 is a measure of hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration.
 neutralization reaction
 Acid + Base —-> salt + water
 what is titration of acid and base
 the determination of the concentration of an acid or base by exactly neutralizing the acid or base with an acid or base of known concentration
 what is indicator
 are ways to measure
 what is a buffer
 is a molecule that tends to either bind or release hydrogen ions in order to maintain a particular pH
 what is an organic compound
 low melting point, not soluble in H2O, slow reactions
 what is a hydrocarbon
 contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms
 prefixes associated with the number of carbon atoms in an organic compund
 1-meth, 2-eth, 3-prop, 4-but, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hept, 8-oct, 9-non, 10-dec
 what is a molecular formula
 name of compounds or atoms
 what is a fully expanded formula
 [image]
 what is a condensed formula
 [image]
 what is a bond line formula
 The skeletal formula of an organic compound is a shorthand representation of its molecular structure   [image]
 structures and names of different funtional groups
 [image]
 what are primary(1o), secondary (2o), Tertiary (3o) alcohols
 [image]
 what are primary, secondary, tertirary amines
 [image]
 what is an alkane
 a single bond, tetrahedral 109.5o bond angle
 how to name alkanes
 ass suffix “ane” substiituents end with “yl”
 physical properties of alkanes
 molecular polarity: larger the alkane the more polar it is boiling and melting points: [image]
 what is an alkene
 contain one or more carbon double bonds
 how to name an alkene
 add “ene” at the end of name, arrange alpha order, souble bond to two diffenerent groups use cis-trans     Cis = same trans = opposite
 what is an alkyne
 one or more triple bonds 180o
 how to name alkyne
 ass “yne” to end of name
 what is a cyclohycarbon
 a saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms bonded to form a ring
 how to name a cycloalkane
 CnH2n single bonds same sum letter that comes first in the alphabet goes first
 how to name a cycloalkene
 CnH2n same sum letter that come first in alphabet goes first
 what is an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene)
 used to classify benzene and its derivatives
 how to name an aromatic hydrocarbon
 [image]
 what is a chiral or achiral center
 achiral does not have 4 different substituents
 what is a stereocenter
 chiral carbon that contains 4 different substituents
 what are isomers
 a compound displaying isomerism with one or more other compounds
 what are consitutional isomers
 molecules having the same molecular formula but different arangments of atoms
 what are stereoisomers
 isomers that have the same connectivity but different orientations of their atoms in space
 determine the maximum possible number of stereoisomers
 calculate 2n, n =  # of stereocenters
 how many stereoisomers are usually active in biological system
 onle one found in nature
 what ate configurational isomers
 a subcategory of stereoisomers that posses the same molecular formula, same connectivity but differ spatially due to internal bond rotation
 what are enantiomers
 Each of a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.
 what is the one property that enantimers differ in
 they’re interacting with other chiral substances.
 what is a racemic mixture
 is one that has equal amounts of left and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule….
 what are diastereomers
 stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another and are non-superimposable on one another.
 what are conformational isomers
 is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted exclusively by rotations…
 what are axial or equatorial groups
 is axial (straight up or straight down) and the other group is equatorial (at an angle, up or down).
 what is the 1,3-diaxial interaction
 n interaction (usually repulsive) between two axial substituents on a cyclohexane ring.
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