FIFA world cup
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- Patriotism and World Football
- British Virgin Islands
- Cayman Islands
- Nederlands Antilles
- Puerto Rico
- Turks and Caicos
- US Virgin Islands
- American Samoa
- Cook Islands
- New Caledonia
- Hong Kong
- Faroe Islands
- The British Isles squads
- Northern Ireland
- General Information
Although the FIFA World Cup is supposed to be contested by national squads entirely, there are about 23 ‘national squads ‘ that do non belong to independent provinces. On the other manus, there are provinces that do non hold a FIFA-affiliated national squad. In this essay every such ‘national ‘ squad is presented, and the grounds that enabled them to contend as states are identified. Particular attending has been given to the State of Palestine, which, although non a recognized state, has been given permission by FIFA to vie as such. Furthermore, the political grounds that helped those provinces becmoe FIFA members are examined, specifically FIFA ‘s policy of ‘one state – one ballot ‘ .
In their web site, FIFA describe themselves as ‘the United states of football ‘ . In fact, FIFA members outnumber those of the UN ( 1 ) , as non all independent states are affiliated in the UN ( for illustration Taiwan and the Vatican ) ( 2 ) . But more significantly, there are besides some non-independent political entities that enjoy FIFA rank. The object of this essay will be to place and hold a close expression at the political world in each of these instances, in an effort to place the grounds that led to their being.
Patriotism and World Football
In today ‘s society worlds consider it natural that the universe should dwell of ‘nation provinces ‘ . Gellner argues nevertheless, that people are however ‘capable of seeing [ the centralized national province ‘s ] eventuality, and of conceive ofing a societal state of affairs in which the province is absent ‘( 3 ) . Therefore, one can reason that the national province construct is merely a societal innovation. A. D Smith supports the position that this was a Western-European device, where‘a dominant ‘ethnie ‘ which formed the province ‘s cultural nucleus, would bit by bit go to able to integrate in-between strata and outlying parts into the dominant cultural civilization ‘( 4 ) . In the 19th century, and particularly after 1848, when ‘the first great moving ridge of patriotisms culminated in the Revolutions of Europe( 5 ) , patriotism was dominant political orientation, and people begun to place with a larger societal group, their fellow-nationals, and non merely with the members of their cultural group, with whom they had cultural ties, such as linguistic communication, faith, mores, or even anthropological charachteristics. Most of the new states managed to establish their outgrowth on a ‘mythology ‘ of a glorious yesteryear, which the new state should try to re-establish.
Equally much as this mythology ‘s intent was to unite the different ethnies of a state province, the more so it accomplished to make a cultural ‘distance ‘ between them and the people of the other state provinces. As there was no superior political establishment than the province, the universe was efficaciously in a state of affairs of lawlessness, a scene of inter-national hostility in every degree.
One of the most of import Fieldss of competition, became of class, athletics. Gellner says that ‘patriotism sentiment is [ … ] the feeling of satisfaction aroused by it ‘s fullfillment, ( 6 ) and Tomlinson emphasizes that ‘states attain their fullest look in two ways- war and athletics( 7 ) . And eventually Duke and Crolley: ‘Football captures the impression of an imagined community absolutely. It is much easier to conceive of the state and confirm national individuality when 11 participants are stand foring the state on the field ‘( 8 ) . It is non surprising, so, that most provinces ‘normally have a football squad to stand for them in international competitions ‘and that the World Cup should be ‘competed by squads stand foring single provinces ‘( 9 ) , ( as opposed to other athleticss, such as the Formula One World Championship, which is contested by commercial squads ) . The thought of national representation through football caught on on the other continents as good: ‘There is [ … ] a nexus between patriotism and the procedure of colonialism, imperialism, and de-colonilization( 10 ) . the freshly independent parts wanted to set up political strucures indistinguishable to those in Europe. Thus national provinces became the norm in the remainder of the universe. With the exeption of Antarctica, every portion of the contamporary universe belongs to a state province, or at least is a dependence of one. And it besides became clear that ‘other than being admitted as a member of the United Nations, rank of FIFA [ … ] is the clearest signal that a state ‘s position as a state province has been recognized by the international community( 11 ).However, as stated above, some of the FIFA members are non to the full ‘ independent states, and this essay will be concentrating on their instances.
In order to place what is ‘a non-independent member state of FIFA ‘ , a comparing was made between the CIA ‘s list of independent states ( found in the on-line edition of the CIA World Factbook ( 12 ) ) , and the list of FIFA members ( 13 ) . All geographical and historical information semen from the CIA ‘s site every bit good, while information on the Associations is provided on FIFA ‘s web site. It was found that there are in entire no less than 23 non independent states that were allowed to field a national squad for FIFA every bit good as for their continent ‘s alliance competitions. These could be geographically divided into four groups: The CONCACAF instances for Northern America and the Caribbean, the OFC ( Oceania ) , AFC ( Asia ) , and the UEFA ( Europe ) . It is interesting that no such instance exists in Africa, where, with the recent inclusion of the Comoros in September 2005. every individual one of the continent ‘s independent states has a national association affiliated to FIFA, Another such instance is South America, where the CONMEBOL is made up merely of independent states. A little anomalousness, nevertheless, is that Suriname and Guyana, who geographically belong to South America are affiliated to CONCACAF alternatively.
Although 3 states make up of about ? of North America, CONCACAF is able to show a rank list dwelling of 35 states. This is because many of the Caribbean islands, although non independent provinces, have opted to be represented by their ain squad instead than that of their mother-countries. CONCACAF have the biggest figure of non-independent states than any other alliance. These are Anguilla, Aruba, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat, the Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos and the US Virgin Islands, 10 in entire. There is no independent state in the part that does non hold a FIFA-affiliated squad.
A British settlement, as indicated by its flag, it was colonised by English colonists around 1650. Officially it ‘s an abroad district of the UK. Its Football Association was founded merely in 1992 and was affiliated to FIFA in 1996. Anguilla foremost appeared for the 2002 World Cup preliminaries, and presently sits in the 197th place of the FIFA/Coca-Cola World rankings out of 205 states ( 14 ) . The population of 10 000 agencies there ‘s really few participants to take from, thought there ‘s an irregularly played amateur conference. Football is merely the third-biggest athletics in the island, happening itself behind cricket and hoops in the athletics newspapers ( 15 ) . Football substructure is non one of the state ‘s featuring precedences, as more attending is given to ‘tourist athletics ‘ substructure, such as tennis and golf.
Aruba was discovered and claimed by Spain in 1499, but was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. Aruba maintains close cooperation with the Dutch FA ( KNVB ) . . This is a instance where the foundation of a separate football association is non linked to independence aspirations. Indeed, Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became an independent member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands ; nevertheless, a motion towards full independency was halted at Aruba ‘s ain petition in 1990. Football is figure one athletics among the island ‘s 70 000 dwellers, and there ‘s besides a premier conference for work forces ( 16 ) . The FA was founded in 1932 but was merely affiliated in 1988. Ten old ages subsequently it made its first visual aspect in the World Cup qualifiers but the squad has ne’er come near to any success, presently lying 199th at the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings.
Bermuda was foremost settled in 1609 by English settlers. Not an independence-aspiring province, Bermuda turned down a referendum on independency in 1995. Officially therefore, it remains an abroad district of the UK, with internal self-determination. The 58 000 h3 population bask a per capita income about every bit high as that of the US. Bermuda has its ain football conferences, ( the Singular Wireless Premier Division, First Division, Commercial A and Commercial B ) , every bit good as a adult females ‘s and youth conference ( 17 ) . Football in Bermuda faces competition from cricket and sports. The Bermuda FA was founded in 1928 and affiliated in 1962. It has a longer history than most of the part ‘s associations, doing its first visual aspect in the World Cup qualifiers for the 1970 edition. The state enjoys a instead respectable 158th topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings, and has merely benefited to a certain extent from the FIFA Goal undertaking.
British Virgin Islands
The British Virgin Islands were settled by the Dutch in 1648 but were annexed to England 24 old ages subsequently. Today the Islands remain an abroad UK district with internal self-governing. BVI formed an FA in 1974 and joined FIFA in 1996. They foremost entered measure uping for Japan-Korea 2002, but scorelines in the part of 5-0 and 9-0 against fellow CONCACAGF squads have been ordinary of all time since for the population of 23 000. As a consequence, the northern Atlantic province today sit in 163rd topographic point of the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. The BVIFA organises its ain conferences, the work forces ‘s Tortola and Virgin Gorda conferences ( one for each of the two chief Islands ) , every bit good as adult females and young person conferences ( 18 ) . But, football is non even mentioned as a ‘popular ‘ athletics in the British Virgin Islands tourism board web site ( 19 ) , with cricket, seafaring, playground ball and sports being given much more promotion ; Alternatively, Equus caballus racing is described as ‘our most popular witness athletics ‘ .
The Cayman Islands were colonised by the British from Jamaica during the 18th and 19th centuries. They remained under British dependence after Jamaica, from which they had been administrated since 1863, gained independency in 1962. Because of the high criterion of life, issues of independency do non come up in the political docket for the Caymnians. Therefore, the country remains today an abroad district of the UK. As a bequest of the British heritage, football is figure one athletics in the Islands, followed by cricket and hoops. There are national conferences for work forces, adult females, and male childs under 17 and under 14, although the 2004-2005 football season was cancelled because of hurricane Ivan ( 20 ) . The Cayman Islands FA was formed in 1966 but was merely attached to FIFA in 1992. The Islands of the 40 000 h3 population took portion for the first clip in World Cup measure uping for France 1998. Their hapless public presentations of all time since, nevertheless, have restricted them to 177th topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings.
The island of Montserrat is yet another abroad district of the UK. In 1995 it was virtually destroyed by volcanic eruption. Two tierces of the population left the state. Sport, hence, is barely figure one precedence for the 10 000 staying dwellers. What is more, the natural catastrophe rendered the lone football pitch on the island unplayable, today though there is besides a premier conference running in the island ( 21 ) . The Montserrat FA was affiliated to FIFA in 1996 and played for the first clip in the preliminaries for the 2002 World Cup. It besides became celebrated that twelvemonth for taking portion in a friendly against Bhutan to make up one’s mind the worst squad of the season. Taking topographic point in the Eve of the Korea-Japan World Cup, it was dubbed as ‘the other Final ‘ . To the Montserratians hurt, the Asiatic side won instead comfortably 4-0. This twelvemonth, in measure uping for Germany 2006 Montserrat suffered a 20-0 sum thrashing in the custodies of Bermuda. Presently, it lies in 202nd topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings
The island of Curacao had been the Centre of Caribbean slave trade until 1863, when this pattern was officially abolished. Today, the Netherlands Antilles are politically an independent state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Full liberty in internal personal businesss was given in 1954, though the Dutch authorities are still responsible for the defense mechanism and foreign personal businesss issues ; each one of the five islands has its ain authorities. The Netherlands Antilles Football Association ( NAVU ) was founded in 1921 and has enjoyed greater success than most of its fellow Caribbean states. They were affiliated to FIFA in 1932 and were crowned Cardinal American Champions twice, in 1950 and 1962. However, they have failed to do it to the World Cup Finals, although they have been viing in the preliminaries since 1958 ( originally as Curacao ) . The squad has lost its fight these yearss, though, and presently has to settle for place nr 166 in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. Like Aruba, close ties with the Dutch FA are seeable, as there ‘s changeless cooperation between the two sides. Football is undoubtedly figure one athletics in the island. NAVU consists of the Curacao and Bonnaire Football Associations, which are each responsible for the several islands. There is a conference in each island for work forces, and besides some adult females ‘s nines. A national adult females ‘s squad is besides under formation ( 22 ) .
Puerto Rico was originally claimed by the Spanish in 1493, and was conceded to the US in 1898, after the Spanish-American war. Puerto Ricans were given US citizenship in 1917. In 1952 self-governance was introduced. In the three plebiscites that took topographic point in 1967, 1993 and 1998 the people showed their purpose for Puerto Rico to stay under commonwealth position, associated to the US. This remains the dependence position of the island today. The wake of the immense American influence on the island is that football ‘s popularity is dwarfed by hoops, sports, baseball and volleyball ( 23 ) .
This is illustrated in the blue 194th topographic point Puerto Rico presently sits on in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings, despite being an island of about four million dwellers. The Puerto Rico Football Association was formed in 1940 and was affiliated to FIFA 20 old ages subsequently. The squad took portion in the World Cup qualifiers for the first clip in 1972. There is a football conference in Puerto Rico sponsored by the FIFA themselves, although late FIFA have threatened to retreat that sponsorship because of the game ‘s low popularity in the part. This has caused the Puerto Rican FA to make up one’s mind against take parting in the 2006 World Cup qualifiers in order to concentrate in developing its substructure ( 24 ) . It is interesting to observe, besides, that a squad called the Puerto Rico Islanders plays in the United States soccer conference against squads from Canada and the US ( 25 ) .
Turks and Caicos
Merely like the Cayman Islands, the Turks and Caicos were portion of the UK Jamaica settlement until 1962, when Jamaica became independent. Therefore, the islands gained position of a separate Crown settlement. From 1965 their personal businesss were overseen by the governor of the Bahamas, but as they, excessively, gained independency in 1973, a separate authorities was appointed to them. Turks and Caicos ‘ independency was due to follow in 1982, but because of a alteration in policy they remained a British abroad district, a political position that still applies to this twenty-four hours. The islands have merely formed a football association every bit tardily as 1996, and were affiliated to FIFA two old ages subsequently. Although football enjoys great popularity among the 20 000 dwellers, Turks and Caicos have one of the weakest squads in the universe, presently lying in the third-to-last topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola universe rankings ( 203rd ) , higher merely than Guam and American Samoa. Their first modification effort came before the 2002 Korea Japan World Cup, from which they were out in three yearss following a 14-0 sum mark against St Kitts and Nevis. In an effort to increase their possible, the association are doing a supplication through inheritor web site for abroad football participants that can turn out Turks and Caicos citizenship. The Turks and Caicos FA organises conferences and cups for work forces and adult females ‘s squads likewise ( 26 ) .
US Virgin Islands
The United States purchased the district in 1917 from the Danish who have occupied it since the seventeenth century. Today, it is an organized, unincorporated district of the US, with policy dealingss between the ( US ) Virgin Islands and the US under the legal power of the US Interior Department. As of 1927, US citizenship was given to the dwellers of the island, who today figure about 10 000. American influence should be considered the chief cause for the deficiency of footballing tradition ; besides, and with touristry being the chief industry in the part, attending is given more to leisure featuring substructure ( H2O athleticss, tennis, golf etc ) so to football ( 27 ) . Their football association was established in 1998 and affiliated the same twelvemonth. The islands ‘ first World Cup measure uping effort came before the 2002 Japan-Korea edition, with the squad traveling out against St Vincent and the Grenadines with an aggregative mark of 14-1. Not surprisingly, today they stand in 195th topographic point of the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings.
Although island-dominated, like the Caribbean, the Oceania football federation merely has four non- independent provinces affiliated to FIFA, though many of its districts are dependences. On the other manus, it is the continent with the most non-FIFA attached independent states. These are Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau and Tuvalu. Partially, this can be a consequence of football ‘s low popularity in the part, because of the presence of athleticss such as rugger and besides transit issues. Oceania ‘s FIFA affiliated non-independent states are American Samoa, the Cook Islands, New Caledonia and Tahiti.
The original state of Samoa was divided in 1899 between the United States and Germany. The portion that belonged to Germany finally gained its independency, and became foremost known as Western Samoa and so kick Samoa ; nevertheless, the US officially occupied their part. Officially, American Samoa ‘s political position today is ‘unincorporated and unorganized district of the US which is administered by the office of insular personal businesss of the US Interior Department. Today its population is approaching 58 000. Football and rugger are the two most popular athleticss in the state. The American Samoa Football Association was formed in 1984 and was affiliated to FIFA in 1998. Taking portion for the first clip in 2001 for the Korea-Japan World Cup measure uping American Samoa was drawn in the same group as Australia. The consequence was a 0-31 place licking by the Australians, and a 0-57 concluding end difference was the chief ground today American Samoa are rock underside ( 205th ) in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. The Association is the lone athleticss administration that organises tourneies for adolescents and school kids.
The islands, as their name suggests were discovered by Captain Cook around 1770, and became a British associated state in 1888. In 1900, administrative control was given to New Zealand, and in 1965 the dwellers opted for self-determination in free association with New Zealand. They are to the full responsible for their internal personal businesss but New Zealand retains duty for their external personal businesss and defense mechanism in audience with them. However, they have the right at any clip to travel to full independency by one-sided action. The Football Association of the Cook Islands was founded in 1971, but was merely attached to FIFA in 1994. The island-dwellers contested their first World Cup qualifier lucifer for the 1998 edition. As they are the universe ‘s third-smallest association, with a population of 14 000, it is no surprise that they are presently lying 193rd in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. Football is merely the third-biggest athletics on the islands, after the two rugger codifications ( brotherhood and conference ) ; nevertheless, if one adds the figure of adult females playing football than it outnumbers both of them, despite the fact that adult females ‘s most popular athletics is netball.
At first New Caledonia was settled both from the Gallic and the British, but it became wholly Gallic in 1853. It remains officially an abroad district of France since 1956. During the 1980 ‘s and 1990 ‘s the thought for independency was popular, nevertheless, a recent referendum on independency did non base on balls. A new referendum will merely be held in 2014. Gallic presence is responsible for football ‘s popularity, with rugger being the other popular athletics. The New Caledonian Football Association is merely a probationary member of FIFA, therefore it is non yet to the full affiliated. However, the national squad participates in the FIFA competitions, and it about made it to the 2nd modification unit of ammunition of the Oceania zone in its first effort for the 2006 edition of the World Cup. New Caledonia is the lone state that does non hold a local flag, and it ‘s represented with the Gallic flag in international competitions. There is a conference in the state, which can tout to hold produced a World Cup victor in 1998, in the face of Lifou-born Christian Karembeu, who played for France that twelvemonth.
During the nineteenth century the Gallic annexed assorted Polynesian island groups. Most Polynesian islands are officially today abroad lands of France, whereas until 2004 they were ‘overseas districts of France ‘ , a position they held from 1946. Tahiti, besides known as Gallic Polynesia grabbed international headlines a few old ages ago when the Gallic authorities carried out a series of atomic trials in the island of Mururoa. Like New Caledonia, Gallic presence in the country has besides played a function in football ‘s popularity. The islands of 270 000 dwellers founded a Football Association in 1989, which was affiliated to FIFA a twelvemonth subsequently. Their first visual aspect in measure uping for a World Cup competition came in 1994. In twenty old ages clip they ‘ve improved plenty to mount in 137th topographic point of the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings, which means they fare much better than most of the non-independent states. the instances of Tahiti and New Caledonia are rather alone, as, harmonizing to Duke and Crolley ‘Gallic colonial centralisation has resulted in the [ other ] indigen football associations non consorting straight with FIFA. Alternatively they have operated as regional associations of the Gallic FA, and accordingly were able to come in the Gallic Cup… in 1982 Central Sport de Papeete from Tahiti… travelled 9,763 stat mis to Montreuil to lose 1-2 against Club Sportif de Thonon…( 28 ) .
Unlike the North American and Oceania Confederations, merely one of the four non-independent, FIFA-affiliated Asiatic states is an island. Apart from Guam, the other three are Hong Kong, Macau, and Palestine. With the association of East Timor in September 2005, all national provinces in Asia have a FIFA attached squad, though Turkey, Israel and Kazakhstan have opted to fall in UEFA.
Although geographically situated in Oceania, Guam is affiliated to the Asian Football Confederation. Guam was ceded to the United States by Spain in 1898, captured by the Japanese in 1941 and retaken by the US in 1944 which have used it as a military base of all time since. Officially, it is today an organised, unincorporated district of the US with policy dealingss between Guam and the US under the legal power of the Office of Insular Affairs of the US Department of the Interior. The ever-present American influence has accounted for football ‘s low popularity in the island: Basketball and American Football are the figure one athleticss in the part, although this besides means Guam have a solid adult females ‘s squad. However, this is non the same state of affairs with the work forces ‘s squad. A Football Association was formed in 1975, and was affiliated to FIFA in 1996. The state attempted to measure up merely one time for the 2002 World Cup in Korea-Japan. It resulted in two lickings, 0-19 and 0-16 to Iran and Tajikistan severally. As a consequence, Guam are presently second-to-last in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings, ( 204th ) , above merely American Samoa. The island does hold a national conference ( 29 ) .
Hong Kong had been occupied by the British since 1841, nevertheless as of 1 July 1997 it became a particular administrative part of China ; this meant that China would be responsible for defense mechanism and foreign personal businesss issues, but the country would hold a large grade of liberty in other affairs. Most significantly, China ‘s socialist economic system would non be imposed in Hong Kong. Because of the aforesaid British presence, football has been popular in the part for many old ages: A Football Association was formed every bit early as 1914, but 40 old ages had to go through before it was affiliated to FIFA. Hong Kong has competed in every FIFA World Cup measure uping tourney since 1974 but had ne’er got near to doing it to the Final phase. It is presently ranked a nice 120th in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. There is a conference for domestic nines in the part, although football is non considered by the Sports Institute as an elite athletics which should be supported ( 30 ) . Rather, the ‘national ‘ policy gives more attending to sports, table-tennis, swimming and others in order to ‘enhance the chances to win decorations in international competition ‘ – a policy considered by some to be more ‘Olympics-orientated ‘ , since the 7 000 000 people province besides has its ain separate Olympic Committee.
Macau was the first European colony in the Far East, as the Portuguese have been present at that place since the sixteenth century. On 20th December 1999 it followed Hong Kong in going the 2nd Special Administrative Region of China, with the same footings using in issues of defense mechanism and foreign personal businesss, every bit good as its economic system policy. Football is really poplar among the population of 500 000 harmonizing to the part ‘s touristry ministry ( 31 ) .
This may hold to make with the aforesaid Portuguese presence in the country. Like Hong Kong, its Football Association was formed some clip ago, back in 1939. It was affiliated to FIFA in 1976, and entered its first World Cup measure uping competition for Spain 1982. Success though has been really scarce for the squad, which sits in 190th place of the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. Worse, in February 2005, Macau was suspended from international competition by FIFA, on the evidences of ‘government intervention in the association ‘s internal affairs ‘ ( 32 ) .
Officially, the Palestinian districts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are presently Israeli-occupied with their position being capable to the Israeli-Palestinian understanding. Permanent position is to be decided by farther dialogue. After the Oslo understandings in 1994, which recognised the Palestinian Authority, Palestine was re-affiliated to FIFA in 1998 and entered the World Cup qualifiers for Japan-Korea 2002. Previously, in 1928 a squad bearing the same name entered making for the 1934 and 1938 World Cups. Harmonizing to FIFA, these were Judaic squads ; Palestinians, on the other manus, claim them to hold been squads ‘that included Arabs, Jewish and Christian participants likewise ( 33 ) . This clip the squad relies largely on exile participants who live in other Arab states every bit good as South America. Because of the political state of affairs in the country, Palestine does non play any of its lucifers at place ; instead, it normally opts for neighboring states such as Qatar and Egypt. This is possibly the clearest instance of a state utilizing athletics to assist set up itself politically, as the Palestinian people fight for independency. British business in the part had helped association football ‘s growing, and football continues to be the most popular athletics in the country. Most clean activities ceased in 1967, but today, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip each have their separate conference, which the Association tries to maintain traveling as planned ( 34 ) . Palestine was chosen from FIFA as a Goal Project Pilot programme, which included the edifice of the installations that would house the Association ‘s central office.
The European Confederation has merely got one non-independent member province, the Faroe Islands. But more interesting is the fact that due to historical grounds, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland ( which make up the United Kingdom ) are still represented independently in international football competitions. From Europe, merely the Principality of Monaco and the Holy See ( Vatican ) do non hold a FIFA affiliated Football Association ; Monaco nevertheless fields a conference squad in the Gallic Championship, on the evidences of ‘Status presence ‘( 35 ) .
The Faroe Islands are portion of the Kingdom of Denmark, with which they have been connected politically since the fourteenth century. As of 1948, they became a autonomous abroad administrative division. Curiously adequate, Faroese proposals for full independency have been deferred merely because ‘anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have non been realised ‘ . The Faroe Islands Football Association was founded in 1979 and was affiliated to FIFA in 1988. The state entered measure uping for the 1994 USA World Cup for the first clip. As one of Europe ‘s smallest Associations, it is presently puting in a mediocre 134th topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. Football is the most popular athletics among the 50 000 dwellers, and there is a professional work forces ‘s conference ( 36 ) . Teams take parting in the ‘Formula Deildin ‘ are eligible to take portion in the UEFA competitions, such as the Champions League and the UEFA Cup. Many of these nines besides have adult females ‘s squad every bit good, which have their ain six-team title.
The British Isles squads
A instead eccentric instance is that of the UK-based ‘national ‘ squads. England, the state in which the game of football as we know it today was founded, is the first of all time Football Association, known merely as the FA ( in contrast to ‘the English FA ‘ ) . It was founded in 1863, though as stated by John Sugden and Alan Tomlinson in their book ‘FIFA and the competition for World Football-who regulations the peoples ‘ game? ‘ :
‘An chesty British isolationism, and the British associations ‘ laterality of the International Football Association Board, the rule-making organic structure, meant that the four British Associations had a stormy relationship with the fledging universe organic structure ‘( 37 )
This meant that England was n’t one of the establishing FIFA members in 1904. Alternatively
‘The English FA joined in 1905… they all withdrew from 1920 -1924, rhenium entered in 1928, so withdrew once more until 1946, since when mwmbership has been uninterrupted if non ever smooth. Although the English were welcomed… there was initial opposition to the seperate rank of the other three UK associations. FIFA regulations stipulated that merely one association was allowed from each province ‘( 38 )
Indeed, England did non take portion in any World Cups until 1950, when it was re-affiliated. Today England is one of the best national squads in the athletics, presently 11th in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings, its biggest minute coming in 1966 when they managed to raise the World Cup on place dirt.
The Scots Football Federation was formed in 1873 and was affiliated to FIFA in 1910. Scotland provided the resistance to England for the first of all time international lucifer. It still holds a topographic point in the International Football Association Board ( along with the other three British squads ) . However, today Scotland have dropped to 74th topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings.
The Wales FA was formed in 1876, and was besides affiliated to FIFA in 1910. Like England, they merely started take parting in FIFA competitions when they were affiliated in 1950. Wales wrote World Cup history in 1958, from a joint Asian-African measure uping zone ( 39 ) ( ! ) when they participated after stepping up to face Israel, as no Asian squad was willing to make that. Wales had already been eliminated from the qualifiers, but as the regulations stated that no squad could measure up for the concluding phase without playing a game, a one off lucifer was staged which saw the British squad into the finals. Cymrus are presently in 82nd topographic point of the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings possibly becuse it is the lone part in Europe where football ‘s popularity is threatened by another athletics ( Rugby Union ) ( 40 ) . In 1992 Wales were ordered by FIFA to set up a national conference, in order to warrant its posistion as a separate association ; this created a mayhem amongst Welshman squads, whixh until that clip were palying in the English divisions.
The Irish Football Association ( as opposed to the Republic ‘s ‘Football Association of Ireland ‘ ) was established in 1880 and was affiliated to FIFA in 1911. Northern Ireland have taken portion in three World Cup Finals in the past, but today they sit in a modest 114th topographic point in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings. The being of four different Football Federations within a individual nation-state has meant that it has been really easy for the participants to ‘choose ‘ which squad they wanted to stand for, even if they had minimum, or, in many instances, no relation at all with the state they would play for. This state of affairs besides came to use to the Republic of Ireland every bit good.
An interesting side consequence to this state of affairs is that British participants can non take part in the Olympic Football tourneies. The regulations province that ‘the associations affiliated to FIFA may take part in the [ Olympic Football ] Tournaments provided there is a National Olympic Committee in their several state ‘ [ … ] ( 41 ) . Indeed, a British squad has n’t participated in the Olympic Games Football tourneies for a long clip, and it will be interesting to see what will go on in the London 2012 Olympic Games.
It appears that, with the exclusion of Palestine, and possibly the Faroe Islands, no political independency aspirations are lying behind the formation of these ‘national ‘ squads. The grounds in most instances might be strictly geographical, as most of these associations are island-based. Twelve of them besides have a National Olympic Committee ( 42 ) . But it is their FIFA association that is more challenging. FIFA takes pride that ‘between 1975 ‘ -one twelvemonth after Joao Havelange ‘s election as president- ‘and 2002 entirely, more than 60 associations were affiliated ‘ . ‘More associations were set to fall in FIFA in 2004, when a new set of legislative acts would be introduced ‘ ( 43 ) , -although for some ground this did non happen. There were 10 non-independent states that acquired FIFA position from 1994 to 1998, and a farther 3 during 1988-90 ; and besides, there ‘s a probationary member, New Caledonia. These 14 provinces constitute the huge bulk of non-independent FIFA members, which total 19, ( with the exclusion of the four British Associations ) . Furthermore, the political dignity of most of them is reasonably debatable: Many have a truly little population ( Montserrat and Anguilla hardly have 10 000 dwellers each ) , and there ‘s besides the fact that football is non really popular in some of these states, particularly in the American-associated 1s: six out of the last 10 squads in the FIFA/Coca Cola World rankings are non-independent provinces, and there ‘s 10s such in the last 16. Apart from the British Isles Associations, Hong Kong is the highest ranked in 120th.
The easiness with which these members were affiliated to FIFA might hold to make with the ‘quest ‘ for ballots within FIFA: the administration operates in a ‘one member – one ballot ‘ policy, intending that ‘the delegate from Cook Islands has every bit much power [ … ] as the delegate from Germany [ … ] ( 33, p. 14 ) . Practically though, smaller states do non bask the same position as, say, most of their European and South American opposite numbers. Alternatively, they can be easy influenced by the ‘big participants ‘ , particularly if they are ‘needy ‘ or ‘poor ‘ states, in order to bring forth ‘block ballots ‘ . Indeed, Chuck Blazer, general secretary of the CONCACAF could vouch FIFA president Joseph Blatter the support of all 35 CONCACAF members if asked to ( 44, p14 ) . We should non bury that, even ‘independent ‘ states of small political dignities are in pattern still dependent on the large, hegemonic provinces, and in many instances do non hold more power so the dependent 1s.
- P. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, , Oxford Blackwell 1983, p. 5
- A.D Smith, National Identity, University of Nevada Press 1991, p. 55
- A. D Smith, Nationalism, Polity Press 2001, p. 87
- as 3, p. 1
- Tomlinson, FIFA and the World Cup, Aldershot Arena 1994
- V. Duke and L. Crolley, Football Nationality and the State, Longman, 1996, p. 4
- as 8
- as 3, p. 42
- J. Sugden and A. Tomlinson, FIFA and the competition for World Football – Who regulations the peoples ‘ game? , Polity Press 1998, p. 9
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html
- hypertext transfer protocol: //fifaworldcup.yahoo.com/06/en/t/team/index.html
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fifa.com/en/mens/statistics/index/0,2548, All-May-2005,00.3 hypertext markup language
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.radioaxa.com/sports.htm
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.caymanfootball.ky
- World Wide Web, navusoccer.com
- as 8, p. 61
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fifa.com/en/media/index/0,1369,105357,00.html
- about Moanco and position presence, see 8, p. 65
- as 11, p. 18
- as 8, p. 12
- as 8, p. 19
- as 8, p. 19
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fifa.com/documents/tournaments/olympic/Olympia_e.pdf
- hypertext transfer protocol: //wwws.athens2004.com/en/Nocs/countries.html
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fifa.com/en/organisation/na/index.html
- Badfellas – FIFA household at war ( John Sugden and Alan Tomlinson, mainstream Publishing Company, 2003 )