Fed Goc chapter 9,10,11,12
State ballot access laws, such as registration fees and petition requirements, have the effect of reducing the number of third-party and independent candidates who can run for office
The average winning margin in house elections is 40 percent
How many party systems has the United States had since 1789? 6
which of the following statements about party building is true? since the eisenhower presidency, republicans have paid much more attention to party building than democrats
internal mobilization occurs when conflicts within the government create divided factions that try to mobilize
dealignment refers to The decline of partisan attachment within the electorate, the growth in the number of voters identifying themselves independents, and the rise of \”split-ticket\”
since the 1930s, african americans have identified themselves as democrats
in contemporary american politics, solid support from the republican party comes from south and mountain west
the establishment of the republican party is a good example of external mobilization
which of the following parties originated from internal mobilization? the Jeffersonian Party
The percentage of people identifying themselves as Republicans ______ between 2002 and 2008, while the number of people identifying themselves as Democrats ______. decreased; increased
Party activists are ______ to contribute time, energy, and effort to party affairs and ______ to hold more extreme views than the party’s rank-and-file voters. more likely; more likely
which of the following best indicated the downfall of the new deal coalition? Richard nixon’s election in 1968
one reason that america has such low levels of political involvement and voter turnout is that there are too many political parties for Americans to choose from.
political parties do not exert any influence over elected officials.
political parties are not strong enough to function effectivelyf
third parties in the united states typically represent social and economic interests that are disregarded by the two major parties for
the populist party appeals to which of the following groups? western mining interest, small farmers, and urban workers
which of the following transpires when one party controls the presidency while another party controls one or both houses of congress? a divided government
a party activist is an individual who not only votes, but also contributes time, energy, effort, and financial resources to
which of the following is not part of a country’s party system? the laws that govern how much money parties can raise and spend in election campaigns
a political party is an organization that tries to influence the government by getting its members to office.
between the civil war and the 1960s, the _______ was the democratic stronghold. Midwest
Men in the United States are __________ the __________ Party.
a. overwhelmingly committed to; somewhat more likely to support; Republican
what were the most common favors political bosses distributed to loyal party members during the era of political machines? jobs
historically, realignments occur when new issues combine with economic or political crises to mobilize new voters and persuade large numbers of voters to reexamine their traditional partisan loyalties.
during the late 1840s and early 1850s, both democratic and whig parties were divided by conflicts over slavery
during the early nineteenth century, the jeffersonian party’s main base of strength was in the south
Competition between political parties _______ voter turnout Promotes
during the 1980s, under the leadership of ronald reagan, which two groups did the republican party add to their coalition? religious conservatives and working-class whites
which of the following statements about parties in congress is false? Only members of the majority party are allowed to take part in the election of the Speaker of the House.
what were the two major parties in the united states during the 1830s and the 1840s? the Democrats and the Whigs
throughout its history, american politics has been dominated by two major political parties.
which group was not a part of the new deal coalition? business leaders
which of the following is not accomplished at a party’s national convention? nomination of Senate and House candidates
third-party candidates are better off under what system of election? proportional representation
a party’s _____ contains its philosophy, principles, and policy positions. platform
527 committees are an important part of the american political system because they they are able to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money as long as they do not coordinate their activities with a political party
which of the following is the best definition of soft money? money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for political activities that are not required by federal campaign spending laws
who elects the chairperson for the republican and democratic national committees? the president if the party controls the white house, or the party committee if the party does not control the white house
The \”tea party movement\” is an organized challenge to incumbents in the republican party by the most conservative wing of the republican party
The United States began its tradition of the ______ during the early eighteenth century. two-party system
which famous american, in his farewell address, encouraged his fellow citizens to shun partisan politics? George Washington
\”Me too\” republicanism refers to The tendency of republican politicians during the New Deal to support popular programs such as Social Security rather than advance alternative policies.
one important cause of the united states’ two-party system is single-member electoral districts
From 1896 to 1932, the ______ party was the nation’s majority party. republican
which system develops when the winner of an electoral race obtains more votes than any other candidate? The plurality system
Women in the United States are __________ the __________ Party. somewhat more likely to support; Democratic
The New Deal coalition was severely strained and ultimately broken apart by the Vietnam War and the issue of civil rights.
when richard nixon employed his \”southern strategy,\” he appealed to disaffected white voters in the South.
A_______ is a closed meeting of a political group’s members who gather to determine strategy and select candidates. Caucus
_____ are nonprofit independent groups that receive an distribute funds to influence the nomination, election, and defeat of a candidate. 527 committees
which of the following statements concerning third parties is false? The earliest third parties in the United States arose as a result of the Great
The Federalist Party disappeared forever as a result of the War of 1812
Political scientists disagree over whether an electoral realignment occurred in 1968 because no one party clearly dominated the national government after the election.
Strong parties may provide an important link between government and democratic participation
Strong and often corrupt urban political party organizations during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were called Machines
An individual’s psychological attachment to one party or another is called a party identification
which of the following statements about partisan identification in the united states is most accurate? Party identification varies significantly by income, race, and gender.
what issue led to the demise of the whig party? Slavery
The program of Reconstruction after the Civil War was led by the ______ Party. Republican
The Constitution is almost completely silent on the rules regarding how political parties must go about selecting a candidate elective official
Which of the following statements about the role of political parties in the 2009 debate over health care reform is false? Republican Party opposition led Democratic leaders in the Senate to use the reconciliation process to pass the bill.
There was strong bipartisan support for the bill after compromises were struck between the House and the Senate.
The bill received majority support from Democrats in both the House and the Senate.
Which of the following occurs when one party becomes dominant after replacing another party that has dominated national politics for a lengthy period of time? an electoral realignment
As a third-party candidate, Ross Perot captured approximately ________ percent of the popular vote in the 1992 presidential election 20
state and local party organizations do all of the following except litigate against unfavorable policies.
Which of the following was not a date of an electoral realignment? 1994
A \”safe district\” is a district where a majority of voters identify with their member of congress’s party.
In 1964, the republican party presidential nominee, ______, espoused a number of ideas, such as less taxation and less government regulation of the economy, that became major themes for the modern Republican Party. Barry Goldwater
Which event occurred in 1994? the Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress for the first time
since the 1950s
which of the following statements about contemporary american politics is most accurate? While political elites are highly polarized, most americans are moderates in terms of public opinion.
From the end of the Civil War to the 1890s, the ______ Party was the party of the North, while the _______ Party was the party of the South. Republican; Democratic
A party’s platform is best understood as a a negotiated agreement between the party’s various factions.
The first party system was characterized by conflict between the ______ and the ______. Federalists; Jeffersonian Republicans
Issues such as the environment, health care, retirement benefits, and taxation are on the political agenda in the United States because contemporary political parties mainly compete for the support of middle-class Americans and these issues are important to the middle class.
During the nineteenth century, party machines depended heavily on ______ in order to reward loyal party supporters. Patronage
The \”Era of Good Feelings\” was the period of one-party politics from the collapse of the Federalist Party until the 1830s.
Which of the following tasks does a party’s national committee not perform? selecting presidential and vice-presidential candidates
Which of the following statements about Organizing for America (OFA) is false? OFOFA has established offices in only three states: California, New York, and Massachusetts.
Which of the following statements is true? The Supreme Court had ruled that elections using electronic voting machines are unconstitutional.?
which of the following statements about campaign spending in Senate elections is true? Incumbents generally spend more money than challengers in Senate campaigns.
During the earliest years of the United States, who nominated the candidates for president? Nominations were controlled by each party’s congressional caucus.
Before the post-World War II era, dark-horse candidates were most likely to arise at a national convention when deadlocks between major factions developed
what is a referendum? t is the practice of voting directly for proposed laws.
Before the 1890s, who was responsible for printing election ballots? Political Parties
If you voted for a Republican for president and a Democrat for senator, you engaged in split-ticket voting
Money contributed directly to a political party to be used for voter registration or party building is called soft money
The \”Americanization of politics\” refers to the spread of American campaign techniques and political consultants to elections conducted around the rest of the world
The boundaries of legislative districts in the United States are to be redrawn every ten
Why did many members of Congress vote to ban advocacy groups from running ads that mention a candidate’s name within thirty days of a primary election and sixty days of a general election? They thought that the ban would make it less likely for wealthy advocacy groups to flood the media with ads and unfairly influence the outcome of elections
A runoff election is likely to occur when turnout in the election is very low.
there is only one candidate running in the election.
there are more than two candidates running in the election.
Most European nations employ what system of elections? proportional representation
Which of the following is not covered by the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act? Individual contributions to 501c(4) and 527 committees
The tern soft money refers to money donated to a party to sponsor party building and voter registration.
When states vie for influence by holding their nominating processes earlier, it is called frontloading
When a voter must be registered with a party prior to voting in that party’s election, it is called a(n) closed primary
What is the incumbent? the current officeholder, running for re-election
What is the first step in running for president? forming an exploratory committee
which of the following is the best example of direct democracy in practice in the United States? referendum
The result produced when voters cast a ballot for the president and then automatically vote for the remainder of the party’s candidates is called? Coattail effect
Approximately how much money does it take for a candidate to have a reasonable chance of winning a seat in the House of Representatives? 500,000
Political scientist call voters’ choices that focus on future behavior ______, while those based on past performances are called ______. prospective voting; retrospective voting
Split-ticket voting increases partisan divisions in government.
When American Voters support only one party’s candidates, they are said to be voting a straight ticket
If a citizen votes for a candidate because he or she approves of the candidate’s past record, it is called Retrospective voting
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, election campaigns tended to be Labor intensive
When candidates for office sponsor hearings, undertake inspection tours of disaster areas, or meet with foreign dignitaries, the form of publicity they receive is called free media
The majority of PACs represent business and professional groups
In order for a political party to select a candidate to run in the general election, it holds a primary election
Partisan loyalty is likely to be highest in the election of a state legislator
The effort by political candidates and their staff to win backing and support by voters in the quest for political office is known as a(n) campaign
When a congressional election is held that does not coincide with a presidential election, it is called a(n) midterm election
The ________ is the last example of indirect voting in national elections. electoral college
Which of the following statements concerning the public funding of presidential campaigns is incorrect? Federal law requires the presidential candidates from the major parties to use public funding during the general election.
What year marked the first time a major political party held a convention? 1832
Private groups that raise and distribute funds for election campaigns are called Political Action Committees (PACs)
Karl Rove was the _______ for George W. Bush Chief political strategist
Which of the following do modern political campaigns not depend on? A large army of volunteers from the party
The primary responsibility for conducting public elections rests with state and local governments.
Campaign consultants do all of the following except print ballots for the election
Three types of factors, _______, influence the decisions of voters at the polls. partisan loyalty, issues, and the characteristics of candidates
When are national elections held in the United States? the first Tuesday of November every other year
For the presidential primaries, most but not all state parties use what type of election? proportional representation
Which of the following politicians was recalled from office? California Governor Gray Davis (2003)
Politicians attempt to \”balance the ticket\” with members of many important groups because voters tend to prefer candidates who are closer to themselves in terms of race, ethnicity, religion, gender, geography, and social background
A major factor in John Kennedy’s 1960 presidential victory over Richard Nixon was that Kennedy had a much stronger performance than Nixon during televised
Party activists who are elected to vote at a party’s national convention are called Delegates
At a party convention, when an entire state delegation votes for a single candidate supported by the majority of its delegates, it is called the Unit Rule
The themes, issues, and messages that candidates present during a campaign are generally based on polls and focus groups.
How many times in American history has the presidential candidate who won the most popular votes not been selected by the electoral college? 3
Plurality and majority systems tend to decrease the number of political parties.
when the Supreme Court announced the principle of \”one person, one vote\” what did it mean? Within a state, electoral districts must have roughly equal populations.
Which event helped lead to a change in the way that the electoral college chose the president and vice president? the duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr in 1803
Which of the following political officers are subject to recall elections? The governor of the state of California
The principle of \”one person, one vote\” was established by the Supreme Court in the 1960s
A majority system, which is used on a limited basis in the United States, requires that a candidate must win ______ to win an election 50 percent plus one of all votes cast
Primary elections were introduced by the _______ in order to weaken the power of party leaders. Progressives
_______ is the most common electoral system used in general elections in the United States. The plurality system
While traditional party conventions were ______, contemporary party conventions are _______.` Deliberative assemblies to determine nominations; simple ratifications of nominations that have already been determined
During midterm elections, voters are voting for Members of Congress
Generally speaking, a recall effort begins with a petition campaign
\”King Caucus\” refers to the use of each party’s congressional caucus to nominate presidential candidates during the early nineteenth century.
In contemporary politics, local election campaigns tend to be ________, while statewide elections tend to be ________. organizationally driven and labor intensive; media-driven and capital intensive
Which of the following statements about campaign spending in House elections is true? The amount of money spent by incumbents has increased since 1980 and has grown at a much faster rate than the amount spent by challengers.
Which of the following statements is most accurate? When voters are satisfied with their economic prospects, they tend to vote for the party in power.
Sport advertisements are useful because they permit a candidate’s message to be delivered to a target audience before people can tune out
Which of the following is a difference between Democratic and Republican primaries? The Democratic Party requires that state presidential primaries allocate delegates on the basis of proportional representation while the Republican Party does not.
The right of candidates to spend their own money on running for office is protected absolutely by the First Amendment, according to the Supreme Court.
When does public opinion polling take place during a campaign? throughout the entire campaign
The practice of ________ means that district boundaries have been purposefully drawn to unfairly advantage one group or party. gerrymandering
If the winner of an election is whoever receives the most votes, regardless of the percentage of votes received, the candidates are running under a _______ system. plurality
which of the following were not major contributors to George w. bush’s 2000 presidential campaign? trial lawyers
Smaller and weaker parties are most likely to have electoral success under which system of elections? the proportional representation system
At a party convention, when an entire state delegation votes for the single candidate supported by the majority of delegates, it is called the retrospective vote.
In what case did the Supreme Court say that purposefully drawing districts where the majority of voters were members of a single minority group, in order to ensure minority representation, was unlawful? Shaw v. Reno
Early presidential primaries and caucuses are more important because they can help a candidate secure media attention and financial support.
Which party has reserved slots at the national convention for elected superdelegates? the Democrats
who is the incumbent? the current officeholder, running for re-election
Which of the following statements is true? Voting equipment varies form county to county throughout the united states
A ______ is a media format in which candidates meet with ordinary citizens, without the input of journalists or commentators. town hall meeting
By using donor lists or magazine subscription lists, candidates are able to engage in Direct-mail solicitations
If George W. Bush won the plurality of votes in Texas during the 2000 election, and Texas had thirty representatives in the House of Representatives, how many electoral votes from Texas did Bush win? 32
Money swapping occurs when a(n) interest group makes a contribution to a not-for-profit group which, in turn, provides laundered campaign funds to politicians.
Why is it important for interest groups to offer selective benefits? It is necessary to limit the extent of the free-rider problem
When a coalition of credit card companies forms an interest group called the Partnership to Protect Consumer Credit, this indicates that private interests are hiding behind the ideals of public interest
The Christian Coalition is best described as a(n) ________ group. Ideological
The first organized interest groups arose in response to the economic interventions of the federal government during the 1890s.
An iron triangle is made up of an alliance between a legislative committee, an interest group, and an executive agency
Which of the following statements about lobbyists and members of Congress is incorrect? Members of Congress are forbidden from ever working for an interest group once they leave office.
One way that the AARP has been effective at overcoming the free-rider problem is by providing ________ benefits to its members. Selective
_____ was an important Washington lobbyist who was indicated in 2005 on charges of violating federal lobbying laws Jack Abramoff
A PAC can contribute ________ to any candidate for federal office, provided it contributes to at least five different federal candidates each year 5,000
Which of the following groups is most likely to belong to the New Politics movement? upper-middle-class professionals, for whom the civil rights and antiwar movements of the 1960s were key experiences
The free- rider phenomenon is not related to groups in any way because it is an individual-level problem.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between lobbyists and Congress in recent years? The relationship between lobbyists and Congress has become so close that many have argued that lobbyists have become like staff members to the Republican leadership
What is the primary variable for predicting the likelihood of joining an interest group? having a higher income and education
What is the primary function of a political action committee (PAC)? to produce and carry out an institutional advertising campaign
to build better networks between interest groups and political parties
to raise and distribute money to election campaigns
Parties with a direct interest in a regulatory rule or decision are ofter termed stakeholders
Which of the following has Congress not done in recent years in order to limit the influence of interest groups? outlawed all contact between lobbyists and members of Congress during legislative sessions
When interest groups take out advertisements and hold marches, these are examples of mobilizing public opinion.
Which group is best adapted to organizing the lower classes? a political party
Which of the following statements about lobbyists and members of Congress is incorrect? Members of Congress are forbidden from ever working for an interest group once they leave office.
Which of the following statements about political parties and interest groups is most accurate? Political parties have declined in influence in recent years, while interest groups have become more numerous, active, and influential.
Both political parties and interest groups have become much less active and influential in recent years.
The increased number and importance of interest groups is due to the decline in the United States’ multiparty system.
is a response to an increase in the size and activity of government.
causes a subsequent expansion in government.
The best description of the ideal pluralism is that interests should be free to compete with each other for governmental influence
The practice of lobbying is protected by the first amendment
If one enjoys the benefits of a group’s collective efforts but did not contribute to those efforts, is called a Free rider
The christian Coalition is best described as a(n) _______ group. Ideological
Which of the following is a main theoretical assumption a pluralism? Competition among interests will produce balance, with all interests regulating each other.
What are political parties more capable of doing than interest groups? organizing people on a mass scale
Which of the following groups would be considered part of the New Politics movement? the Sierra Club
Populist supported the initiative because they saw it as a way to limit the influence of interest groups in the legislative process
A full-page, fully spread in the New York Times publicizing a major oil company is best described as institutional advertising.??
When a group is called a membership association, it means that members play an important role in the daily activities of the group.
Successful interest groups quickly become beuracratized
Interest groups are concerned with the _______ of government, while political parties are concerned with the ________ of government. policies; personnel
Interest groups are permitted to spend as much money as they want on issue advocacy during a campaign season, as long as they do not coordinate their efforts with a candidate’s own campaign organization.
Which of the following statements about PACs is most accurate? The number of both labor PACs and ideological/public interest PACs has decreased significantly since 1980.
The number of ideological/public interest PACs has increased dramatically since 1980, while the number of labor PACs has remained essentially the same.???
By 2012, there were approximately ________ PACs in the United States. 5,500
Public interest groups differ from other types of interest groups in that they claim to serve the common good, not just their own particular interests.
Organized interest groups enhance american democracy by representing the interests of large numbers of people and encouraging political participation
Which of the following has been eliminated as a result of 2002 campaign-finance reforms? Soft Money
Lobbying is an attempt by an individual or group to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of Congress or a state legislature.???
The major organizational factors shared by most interest groups are very close links with the national news media, direct ties to a member of Congress, a headquarters in Washington, D.C., and members.
very close links with the national news media, connections with Hollywood, direct ties to the president of the United States, and members.
leadership, money, an agency or office, and members.
Since the 1930s, the number and scale of interest groups at the national level has dramatically increased
What is the most important attempt to limit the influence of lobbyists in recent years? the 1995 lobbying disclosure act
Most initiative campaigns today are sponsored by Interest groups seeking to circumvent legislative opposition to their goals
Why is the Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 important to lobbyist? It requires agencies to create opportunities for public comments before implementing new rules and regulations.
A PAC can contribute _______ to any candidate for federal office, provided it contributes to at least five different federal candidates each year. 5,000
The Teamsters and the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) are examples of what kind of interest group? a labor group
The fact that interest groups favor the wealthy and well educated can be understood as a reflection of what eternal dilemma in American politics? Liberty is often inconsistent with equality
Which of the following statements best describes the status of lobbyists for foreign interests in the the United States? Both foreign nations and foreign business interests lobby strongly for economic benefits, military aid, and other issues
Alexis de Tocqueville argued that the proliferation of groups gromoted governmental responsiveness
What distinguishes lobbying from other strategies of influence? Lobbyists try to exert pressure directly on governmental officials themselves
In recent years, the religious right has had a great effect on American politics through grassroot mobilization
When membership in an organization allows for a reduction in the price of museum tickets, it is called a meterial benefit
How can interest groups use litigation as a strategy of influence? filing amici curiae briefs, financing lawsuits, and bringing a suit on behalf of the group
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between New Politics forces and the courts during the 1970s and 1980s? New Politics forces made significant use of the courts during the 1970s and 1980s and judicial decisions were instrumental in advancing their goals
The solidary benefits of interest groups include Friendship and consciousness-raising
Which of the following groups was not established through the New Politics movement? National Association of Manufacturers
Parties with a direct interest in a regulatory rule or decision are often termed stakeholders
Members of interest groups in the United States are typically people with higher levels of income and education
Interest groups most effectively serve the upper class
The Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990 was designed to encourage administrative agencies to negotiate with important interest groups
Money-swapping occurs when a(n) interest group makes a contribution to a not-for-profit group which, in turn, provides laundered campaign funds to politicians.
The New Politics movement gave rise to what type of interest group? Public interest
The free-rider problem occurs because the benefits of a group’s actions are broadly available and cannot be denied to nonmembers
In the world of lobbyists, to be \”Microsofted\” has come to mean a company has become vulnerable to adverse legislation and investigation as a result of failing to lobby the federal government.
Populists supported the initiative because they saw it as a way to limit the influence of interest groups in the legislative process.
The Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990 was designed to encourage administrative agencies to negotiate with important interest groups
Many interest groups are initially organized because a political entrepreneur with a strong commitment to a particular set of goals believes a group will promote his or her goals and enhance his or her political influence.
Another name for lobbying is Petitioning
When interest groups generate phony letters and phone calls in order to resemble a grassroots movement, this technique is called Astroturf lobbying
Grandparents, tall people, and undergraduates are all examples of potential interest groups
Which of the following issues is not part of the agenda of the New Politics movement? industrial deregulation
What is the most important and beneficial resource that lobbyists provide government officials? information
A grassroots lobbying campaign occurs When an interest group mobilizes its members and their families throughout the country to write their representatives in support of the group’s position
It is difficult for political scientists to categorize unrepresented interests because there are no organizations that can present their identities and demands.
Supply-side economics is the idea that the best method of producing high levels of economic growth is to engage in high levels of government spending.
the government should impose heavy tariffs on imported goods in order to protect domestic suppliers.
the government’s role in the economy should be strictly limited to regulating the supply of money.
reducing the marginal rate of taxation will create a productive economy by promoting levels of work and investment that would otherwise be discouraged by higher taxes.
The United States has ______ percent of the world’s population and is responsible for ______ percent of its greenhouse gas emissions. 1; 5
The National League of Cities is a good example of a public-sector interest group.
approximately how many members does AARP have? 38,000,000
If people were motivated to join an environmental organization because they strongly believed in protection the environment and supported the goals of the group, then we would say they were motivated by purposive benefits
Which of the following is not a job regularly performed by lobbyists ? nominating a candidate to run for political office
A ______ is the best example of an informational benefit provided by many interest groups. newsletter
A benefit that is sought by an interest group and that once achieved cannot be denied to nonmembers is called a collective good
which of the following is not a key organizational component of interest groups? newsletter and website
A loose, informal relationship of public officials, interest groups, and activists who are all concerned with the same policies is called a(n) issue network
What contemporary political scientists call an interest group, James Madison called a(n) faction
which of the following groups has had the greatest success with a strategy of litigation? the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
A criticism of interest-group pluralism is its class bias in favor of those with greater financial resources.
when paid staff conduct most of the daily business of a group, that group is best described as staff organization
Which of the following is NOT a function of interest groups? to get their members elected to political office.
Which of the following Supreme Court cases illustrates the use of litigation by an interest group? Websteru
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In recent years, approximately what percentage of House members seeking re-election won their race? 95 percent
\”Closed rule\” and \”open rule\” refer to congressional provisions regarding floor debate on a bill
Which of the following is not a resource congressional party leaders have at their disposal to secure the unity and cooperation of their members? constituency service
Which of the following statements about Congress’s role in foreign policy is not accurate? The Constitution directs Congress to stay out of foreign affairs and concentrate solely on domestic politics.
Most members of the House attempt to stay on good terms with the Speaker of the House because the Speaker possesses the power of recognition
The jurisdiction of standing committees is defined by the subject matter of legislation, which often parallels the major cabinet departments or agencies
Which idea of representation says that a legislator should be viewed as someone whom voters hire to represent their interests? agency representation
Three factors related to the American electoral system affect who is elected to office in this country and what they do once they get there. Those factors are who decides to run for office, incumbency, and the drawing of district lines.
One problem with the delegate model of representation is that that few people are well informed about all political issues.
The House Ways and Means Committee is one of the most important committees in Congress because it has the final vote on all foreign policy legislation moving through the House.
it has jurisdiction over taxes, trade, and entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
it is placed in charge of voting on impeachment charges.
Making laws is frequently compared to making sausages because no one likes to see how meat is processed same goes for the making of the laws. They are both messy processes.
In general, members of the House seek committee assignments that will allow them to influence decisions which are of special importance to voters in their districts.
The Congressional Research Service and the Government Accountability Office are examples of staff agencies
A bicameral legislature is one that has two chambers or houses
A proposed piece of legislation is called a bill
Congressional leaders form ______ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem. select
As of 2012, how many women serve in the U.S. Senate? twenty
Which of the following is the best definition of a constituent? It is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature.
The role the House of Representatives plays in impeachments can best be compared with that of a grand jury.
The frequency with which they must seek re-election makes members of the House more responsive to the needs of local interest groups in the districts they represent
What are the most common private bills proposed in Congress? bills for permanent visas or citizenship for foreign nationals
Which statement about the membership of Congress is not true? Senators and members of the House are less likely than the population on the whole to be Protestants.
Pork-barrel legislation deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.??
deals with specific agricultural subsidies.
funds efforts to increase the levels of America’s meat exports.
A vote on which 50 percent or more of the members of one party take one position while at least 50 percent of the members of the other party take the opposing position is called a party unity vote.
The Senate’s constitutional power of advice and consent extends to which of the following? the president’s power to make treaties with foreign nations??
Which of the following best describes a way in which the House differs from the Senate? the House is more centralized and organized than the Senate
When two members of Congress who share no common interests agree to support each other’s bills, the practice is called logrolling
The idea of ______ identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents. sociological representation
Conference committees are temporary, involve members from both houses of Congress, and are charged with reaching a compromise on legislation once it has been passed by both the House and the Senate.???
The process of allocating congressional seats among the fifty states is called apportionment
A(n) ______ has the same status as a treaty but does not require Senate approval. international accord
foreign policy position
The two presidents to be impeached by the House of Representatives were Bill Clinton and Andrew Johnson
What did the Supreme Court declare in Miller v. Johnson? The racial composition of a district could not be the predominant factor when redistricting.
The filibuster is likely to remain a feature of legislative politics in the United States because a sixty-seven vote majority is required to eliminate it.??
\”Astroturf lobbying\” refers to the practice whereby members of Congress are influenced by being given free tickets to sporting events or other gifts.
a special interest group simulating a grassroots movement works with well-organized campaigns and petitions.??
lobbyists begin to specialize, with narrow areas of professional expertise.
The four joint committees in Congress are economic, taxation, library, and printing
A filibuster allows members of the Senate to prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor.
Which of the following is the best definition of a congressional caucus? unofficial groups of representatives or senators sharing similar interests or opinions
Who decides which committee assignments members of the House of Representatives receive? each party’s own \”steering and policy\” committee??
each party’s National Committee
each party’s whip
The powers and resources available to government officials that are used to favor supporters are called patronage
Gerrymandering refers to the manipulation of electoral districts to serve the interests of a particular group.
The larger, more heterogeneous constituencies and longer terms of Senators means that they are more likely to consider \”new ideas\” and are better able to act as the agents for groups and interests organized on a statewide or national basis
How long is the term of office for a U.S. senator? six years
Which of the following statements is most accurate? Many states have strict laws that require representatives to vote in accordance with what their constituents want.
On many issues, constituents do not have very strong views and representatives are free to act as they think best without fear of electoral reprisals.??
On many issues, constituents have very strong views and representatives feel compelled to do exactly what their constituents demand.
One reason why redistricting is controversial is that computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.
Who is the Speaker of the House? The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the Speaker.
Which of the following is not a task of congressional staff members? debating and voting in subcommittee meetings
The House Ways and Means Committee has jurisdiction over which of the following areas? taxes, trade, and entitlement programs
Agencies in Congress designed to oversee administrative agencies and evaluate presidential proposals are called staff agencies.??
How can a president’s veto be overridden by Congress? by a two-thirds vote in both houses
In 2006, ______ became the Speaker of the House. Nancy Pelosi
Constituency service is so important that party leaders will not ask any member to vote in a way that conflicts with the interests or opinions of the member’s district.
Which of the following is not a service often provided by representatives to their constituents? Offering constituents legal advice regarding new administrative laws
Approximately what percentage of proposed bills die in committee? 95 percent
The need to divide the labor of legislation is best exemplified in what formal structure of Congress? the establishment of standing committees
Which of the following would not constitute an example of patronage? a senator from New York voting in favor of a law to eliminate earmarks
Cloture is the process by which three-fifths of the Senate can end a filibuster.
Why does the House have greater party unity than the Senate? House leaders have more organizational control over the actions of representatives than Senate leaders
A senator or representative running for re-election is called the incumbent
Who has the most real power in the Senate? the majority and minority leaders
Which of the following is a key assumption of the sociological model of representation? Because similarity helps promote good representation, the composition of legislative bodies should mirror the composition of society.
What are the greatest dangers associated with a trustee model of representation? Representatives may become inattentive to the wishes and opinions of their constituents.
Which of the following statements concerning the representation of women and minorities in the U.S. Congress is true? Representation of women and minorities has increased over the past two decades, but is not comparable to their proportions in the general population.
One reason some people support the instatement of term limits in the House and Senate is that it will increase turnover and get new faces into Congress.
In the House of Representatives, the majority leader is subordinate to the Speaker of the House
The most common occupation among members of Congress before coming to Congress is lawyer
Which is the best description of the K Street Project? It was an attempt to place former Republican staffers in key lobbying positions to help ensure a large flow or corporate donations to the Republican Party.
In addition to pressuring members of Congress to vote a certain way on a bill, interest groups also have substantial influence in setting the legislative agenda.
Which of the following statements concerning the process of reapportionment is correct? in order for one state to gain a seat, another state must lose a seat.
Congress adjourns during a ten-day period after presenting the president with a bill, and the president takes no action. This is known as a pocket veto
Which statement about a party unity vote is true? In 2005, party unity voting was close to an all-time high
Organizational reforms instituted by Congress in the 1970s fragment power by reducing the power of committee chairs
Which of the following best explains the small number of women in Congress? Incumbency is a very powerful resource, and most incumbents have been men.
When the House and the Senate coordinate two versions of the same bill, they will often use a ______ to obtain a single unified bill. conference committee
What unusual action did Texas take after the 2000 census? Texas redistricted twice, in 2001 and 2003.
When two members of Congress who share no common interests agree to support each other’s bills, the practice is called logrolling
Congressional organization is influenced by all of the following except presidential directives
Which of the following does not typically affect individual’s decision to run for elected office? the individual’s ability to meet the extensive list of educational requirements defined by local, state, and federal laws
Responsibility for communicating the leader’s wishes to members in Congress lies with the Whip System
In each house district there are approximately ________ people. 700,000
The \”sophomore surge\” refers to the tendency for candidates to win a higher percentage of the vote when seeking futre terms in office
oversight can best be described as the efforts of congress to supervise the manner in which its laws are implemented by the executive branch
According to the text, which of the following is not an important influence on the legislative agenda of Congress? the federal courts
The determination of the time and structure of floor debate on a bill, in the House of Representatives, is up to the Rules Committee.??
Ways and Means Committee.