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‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’? On 26th August 2009, Lander Unzueta, FC Barcelona’s Chief Marketing Officer (CMO), was sitting in his office with his early morning cup of coffee in front of all the day’s newspapers. The day before, Jorge Valdano, General Manager of FC Barcelona’s archrival, Real Madrid, had declared to the German news agency DPA (Deutsche Presse Agentur): “Each [club] aims to occupy a place in the world from its own particular vision.Barcelona does it by looking from Catalonia inwards, while Real Madrid does it from Spain outwards…

” Valdano’s words were on the front page of every Spanish sports newspaper and were also highlighted in the sports sections of all the major general newspapers in Spain. The international media were also echoing Valdano’s opinions. Unzueta knew for sure that this was going to be a hectic day, with journalists calling to get the expected reactions from FC Barcelona representatives. He also knew that it would not be long before different stakeholders jumped into the fray, expressing their views on the issue.But Unzueta also thought it was probably a good excuse to revise FC Barcelona’s global brand strategy.

This case was written for ESADE Business School by Professors Josep Franch and Jordi Montana and MSc student Andreu Turro, with assistance from MSc student Guillermo Munoz. The authors would like to thank Lander Unzueta and Patricia Plasencia, FC Barcelona’s Chief Marketing Officer and Marketing Manager respectively, for the information and assistance provided. The authors developed this case for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of the situation.The case, instructor’s manual, and synopsis were anonymously peer-reviewed and accepted by the North American Case Research Association (NACRA) for its annual meeting in October 2010, held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. All rights are reserved to the authors and NACRA.

© 2010 by Josep Franch, Jordi Montana and Andreu Turro. Contact person: Josep Franch, ESADE, Av. Pedralbes 60-62, 08034 Barcelona, Spain, (34) 93 280 6162, josep. [email protected]

edu. 1 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’FC Barcelona History When Hans Gamper founded FC Barcelona1 (known familiarly as Barca) on 29th November, 1899, he probably did not anticipate the enormous magnitude his initiative would have as time went by. Hans Gamper was born in Winterthur (Switzerland) in 1877. He relocated to Barcelona (Spain) in 1898 for business reasons though he also decided to create a football team to practice his favourite sport.

After placing an advertisement in a local newspaper to recruit players, he was finally able to bring together a few individuals on 29th November, 1899.On that day, Football Club Barcelona was incorporated as a private, non-profit association, and Englishman Gualteri Wild was elected the club’s first President (see Exhibit 1, ‘FC Barcelona Presidents’). Very early on, it was decided that the team would adopt the name and the coat of arms of the city of Barcelona as its crest (see Exhibit 2, ‘FC Barcelona Crests’). Although there were several theories regarding the origins of the blue and red colours worn by FC Barcelona, the most widely accepted was that these colours were inspired by the colours of a football club that Gamper had played for some years earlier in Switzerland.In 1908, Gamper had to save the club from disappearing.

Shortly afterwards it was decided the club should have its own differentiated crest. A contest was organised and the design by Carles Comamala was chosen as the winner. This design was still the one used currently, a bowl shaped crest with the city’s symbols such as Saint George’s Cross and the Catalan red and yellow flag in the upper part with the FC Barcelona’s blue and red stripes below. In those days, football was becoming an increasingly popular sport in Barcelona and in Spain as well as in many other European countries.In the first decade of the 20th century, FC Barcelona was already one of the most popular and well known organisations in Catalonia.

2 This led the club to build a new stadium in 1922, called ‘Les Corts’: it had a capacity for 22,000 spectators though was later successively expanded to hold up to 48,000. The 1920s represented the club’s first golden era as the team successfully won many different titles, amongst them the first edition of the Spanish National League in 1929. However, some problems also arose at that time.In 1925, Spain was ruled by the dictator, Primo de Rivera. In one football match at ‘Les Corts’ stadium, spectators whistled while the Spanish Royal march3 was played, leading authorities to suspend all FC Barcelona activities for 6 months. FC Barcelona was already becoming not just a symbol in the football field, but also                                                              1 2 3 FC Barcelona stands for Futbol Club Barcelona (Football Club Barcelona).

Catalonia is a region in northeast Spain, and Barcelona is its capital.Spanish national anthem. 2 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ a social, political and cultural symbol for the city of Barcelona and for the whole region of Catalonia as well. The 30s were years of major crises for the club. The number of members was gradually decreasing, and the team did not achieve almost any significant victories. Furthermore, at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, the President of FC Barcelona, Josep Sunyol, was arrested and shot by General Franco’s fascist troops.

Also during the Spanish Civil War, while FC Barcelona was playing some exhibition matches in Mexico and the United States, several players decided to seek asylum and not return to Spain. In 1950, FC Barcelona signed the Hungarian player Ladislao Kubala. He became the main star on a team that was so successful at the beginning of the 50s that the old ‘Les Corts’ stadium soon became too small for the increasing number of club members, prompting President Francesc Miro-Sans to plan a new and larger stadium.In 1957, the club inaugurated its new stadium, called Camp Nou (literally, ‘New Stadium’), with a capacity for 90,000 spectators at the time. During the difficult years of General Franco’s dictatorship, which lasted almost 40 years, the majority of Catalan political institutions and organisations were forbidden, and FC Barcelona became a symbol of freedom and democracy once more.

Camp Nou was one of the few public places where people could speak and express themselves freely.Once again, it became clear that, apart from being a football club, FC Barcelona had some kind of symbolic meaning for many people. This was the reason why, when President Narcis de Carreras took over in 1968, he said that FC Barcelona was Mes que un club (‘More than just a club’). In the 70s the club continued to increase its number of members, it signed the Dutch player, Johan Cruyff, and it won the Spanish league in 1974 after beating archrival Real Madrid 0-5 in Madrid.The club celebrated its 75th anniversary with 69,556 members4, making it the largest club in the world.

In 1988, Johan Cruyff became the team’s coach, leading the team during one of the most successful periods in its history, winning four Spanish leagues in a row (from 1991 to 1994) and the club’s first European Cup (later known as ‘Champions League’), the most important title a European team can win, with a team that became known as the ‘Dream Team’. After a period of four years without any significant victory, Joan Laporta was elected president in 2003.When Laporta took over as FC Barcelona President in 2003, the club was not performing well, and its results were disappointing (the club had not won any significant cup in the last four years and had ended 6th in the Spanish League that year). As a result, attendance at the stadium had been decreasing.

Furthermore, the club’s financial results did not look very                                                              4 As will later be explained, FC Barcelona was owned exclusively by its members. 3 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ romising: revenues totalled €123 million5 (leaving FC Barcelona 13th in the ranking of football club revenues). Meanwhile, expenditures totalled €169 million, and the club’s debt had increased to €186 million. Salaries accounted for 88% of the club’s expenditures, well above the 55%-65% benchmark figure recommended by the G-14. 6 The club adopted some measures to find new uses for the stadium, creating VIP lounges and promoting attendance at FC Barcelona matches through travel agencies and tour operators; TV ights were also renegotiated, the number of club members was increased, Barca TV was launched, strategic partnerships were redefined, the fees charged for international tours were increased, and web traffic was tripled.

Furthermore, an important investment was made in good players, not only to improve the club’s performance but also to increase its marketing and merchandising potential, in a strategy that was nicknamed ‘the virtuous circle’.Laporta led the FC Barcelona through another successful period, winning two consecutive Spanish leagues in 2005 and 2006, the year in which FC Barcelona won its second Champions League. FC Barcelona in 2009 2009 was proving to be the most successful year in the club’s history. Led by coach Josep Guardiola, a former player, FC Barcelona succeeded in becoming the first Spanish team to win the treble: the Spanish League, the Spanish Cup and the UEFA7 Champions League in the same season.

A few days before, the team had also won the Spanish Super Cup, and it had yet to play the final of the UEFA Super Cup in the coming days. The last competition of the year was the FIFA8 Club World Cup, scheduled for December. If Barcelona managed to win these last two cups, it would become the first football team ever to win six competitions in a single year. 5 In 2009, the average exchange rate was $1 = € 0. 7338; in 2003, this was $1 = € 0. 8840.

The G-14 was formed in 2000 and composed originally of the 14 major European football clubs though later expanded to 18: AC Milan, Inter Milan and Juventus FC (Italy); AFC Ajax and PSV Eindhoven (the Netherlands); Borussia Dortmund, FC Bayern Munchen and Bayer Leverkussen (Germany); FC Porto (Portugal); FC Barcelona, Real Madrid and Valencia CF (Spain); Arsenal FC, Liverpool FC and Manchester United FC (England); and Olympique Marseille, Paris SaintGermain and Olympic Lyonnais (France).Union of European Football Associations, the administrative and controlling body for European football headquartered in Nyon (Switzerland), was made up of 53 national associations. Federation Internationale de Football Association, the international football governing body headquartered in Zurich (Switzerland), had 208 national member associations. 8 7 6 4 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’In Spain, FC Barcelona was one of only three Spanish football clubs to have never been relegated from the Spanish league’s premiere division, having won 19 Spanish league titles (La Liga), a record 25 Spanish Cups (Copa del Rey9), 8 Spanish Super Cups, 2 League Cups and 4 Eva Duarte Cups. In Europe, FC Barcelona was the only European football club to have qualified to play continental competitions every season since the latter’s inception in 1955, winning 3 UEFA Champions League titles, a record 4 UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup, a record 3 Inter-Cities Fair Cups (the forerunner to the UEFA Europa League) and 2 UEFA Super Cups.

Over its history, world-class football players such as Kubala, Cruyff, Maradona, Romario, Rivaldo and Ronaldinho had all played for FC Barcelona. In 2009, FC Barcelona was the biggest sports club in the world in terms of the number of teams, sections and members. Apart from football, FC Barcelona had four other professional sections (basketball, handball, roller hockey and indoor football), eight non-professional sections (wheelchair basketball, athletics, rugby, baseball, volleyball, field hockey, ice hockey and ice dance), and one associated section (women’s volleyball). Every section had different teams in different categories.In 2009, the club reached its highest revenues ever (€384.

8 million), making FC Barcelona second in the ranking of European football club revenues (see Exhibits 3 and 4, ‘Top European Football Club Revenues’ and ‘FC Barcelona Financial Highlights’, respectively). The club also reached a record number of members, 163,763 (see Exhibit 5, ‘FC Barcelona Number of Members’). FC Barcelona’s Organisational Structure FC Barcelona was owned exclusively by its members. Since the new Statutes approved by the General Assembly in August 2009, elections were held every six years in order to elect thePresident and a Board of Directors to manage the club. The Board of Directors could have a maximum of four Vice Presidents, normally in charge of different areas, such as: Sports, Social, Marketing and Media, and Operations. All positions on the Board of Directors were honorary and without salaries.

Below this Board of Directors, FC Barcelona had a professional executive structure, similar to that found in private companies, headed by a Corporate Director General and directors in charge of different managerial functions, including Marketing, Finance, Services and Operations, Organisation and Information Systems, amongst others. King’s Cup. 5 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ The Marketing Department was in charge of: ticket sales; sponsorships; international tours; licensing of the FC Barcelona brand; merchandising; retail; advertising campaigns; FC Barcelona museum; the FC Barcelona TV channel (Barca TV); the website and the new media (Facebook, Youtube); other promotional events. The FC Barcelona museum had an average of 1. 2 million visitors per year and represented €12 million in revenues in 2008/2009.

FC Barcelona Official Sponsors included Nike, Audi, Telefonica, La Caixa (a Catalan savings bank), TV3 (Catalonia’s main public television channel) and Estrella Damm (a local beer producer). The Football Industry Over the last few years, the football industry had grown faster in terms of revenue than any other industry, between 10% and 25% depending on the country, evolving from a local and cultural passion to a global business, becoming the most popular sport in the world and growing faster than any other sport.According to Reuters, in May 2009, the UEFA Champions League final between FC Barcelona and Manchester United had a TV audience of 109 million, surpassing for first time ever that of the Super Bowl, with 106 million viewers. The main European markets were England, Germany, France, Italy and Spain, whereas the main Latin American markets were Argentina, Brazil and Mexico.

These markets were all considered mature, with around 75% of Latin Americans and 50% of Europeans interested in football. A number of different factors had triggered this change.The first was a drastic transformation in the traditional football business model. At the beginning of the 80s, as much as 90% of the total revenues for many clubs came from admissions tickets.

Attending a football match at a stadium was almost the only way to support a team, so it was basically a local event, and the market was naturally divided between national clubs. But this started to change with the privatisation of public televisions as different private channels began to compete for broadcasting rights.As a consequence, the income generated by TV rights increased progressively to the point that, in the 90s, admissions tickets accounted for only 50% of total revenues for many clubs, with television rights representing the other half. Many clubs undertook different actions to increase their income through admissions tickets. For instance, Manchester United raised the capacity of its stadium, Old Trafford, from 68,000 seats to 76,200 seats in 2006, and increased the number of VIP lounges which generated higher added value.That same year, Arsenal FC inaugurated its ‘Emirates’ stadium, doubling its revenue from tickets from €66 million to €133 million.

6 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ With the arrival of the digital era and the possibility of watching matches via satellite television and the internet, the number of football fans started to grow all over the world. Watching live football matches attracted more viewers than any other sport in the world, making football a global sport with global clubs, global players and global brands.Football became an entertainment industry in its own right, one that no longer operated locally but had become a global business. FIFA estimated that 240 million people regularly played football around the globe, including 20 million women. A second major change was the ‘Bosman Law’ enacted in Europe in 1996, named after a Belgian football player who fought for the free circulation of European Union football players within the European Union, allowing member country nationals to play in any EU club without restrictions and outlawing the payment of transfer fees for players whose contracts had expired.The third main change was related to the increased revenue stemming from marketing and merchandising of officially licensed products (see Exhibit 6, ‘Revenue Sources for Top European Football Clubs’).

Many clubs created their own official stores in addition to the traditional sports stores in places like Tokyo or Beijing. Manchester United was probably one of the first football clubs to take advantage of these new sources of income, with record breaking contracts for TV rights and sponsorships.The best and most popular players were in high demand, and the transfer price and the salaries to recruit the best players started to soar expensive (see Exhibit 7, ‘Highest Transfer Fees for Football Players’). Football clubs signed the most popular players in an attempt to increase media attention and popularity (see Exhibits 8 and 9, ‘Media Value for the Main Football Payers’ and ‘Media Value for the Main Football Clubs’, respectively). Football clubs started to compete to win not only matches and titles, but also global market share, the number of fans and revenue (see Exhibit 10, ‘Supporter Base for Football Clubs in Europe’).

In an industry where only 10% of European football clubs accounted for 67% of industry revenue and 70% of the expenditures on players and coaches, entering new markets seemed the only way to increase size in order to remain competitive. Major European football clubs dramatically increased their sales turnover (see Exhibit 11, ‘Revenue Growth of Selected European Clubs from 2000/2001 to 2008/2009’). Unfortunately, the debt of several clubs also increased dramatically, forcing many to privatise, being purchased by some millionaires or becoming publicly listed companies.Unfortunately, the debt of several football clubs also increased dramatically. According to the UEFA, the 732 football clubs in the European leagues accumulated a total net debt of €5. 5 billion.

As a result, many clubs had to be privatised, purchased by some millionaires or became publicly listed. In 2001, Juventus sold 37% of its shares for €167 million in an Initial Public Offering (IPO). 7 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Real Madrid and Chelsea also took advantage of extraordinary resources from unusual sources.For example, Florentino Perez, President of Real Madrid between 2001 and 2006 sold several parcels of land for a total of €480 million to invest in football players who were also celebrities in order to increase the value of the Real Madrid brand. A few years later, in summer 2009, Perez was reelected President of Real Madrid and he spent €250 million in only a couple of months to hire four new players (Cristiano Ronaldo, Kaka, Benzema and Xabi Alonso). In 2003, Chelsea was acquired by Russian millionaire, Roman Abramovich, who invested more than €360 million of his own fortune in less than a year to create a team with very good players.

These business models were not considered to be very sustainable. The main challenge for top European clubs was to expand their brands around the world because without their international expansion and activities it was impossible to have enough resources to compete with other European clubs. Americans preferred other sports like baseball, basketball or American football to football (called ‘soccer’ in the US). However, football was popular amongst women and the most popular sport played by American boys and girls.The US also remained an interesting market because there was a huge Latino population for whom football was their favourite sport.

The US was also the home base of many multinational corporations, who were potential sponsors for football clubs. Very recently, a Mexican team called Chivas bought a franchise in the American football league, the Major League Soccer (MLS), calling the team Chivas USA. A different issue would be whether Chivas supporters considered Chivas USA as ‘the real Chivas’. The popularity of football had reached the Asian markets a few years before.Asian supporters were not really football experts but they loved the football players, who were more important than the teams themselves. As a result, loyalty for a club was not as strong as in traditional football countries.

As Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano once put it: “In a life time, a man can change his spouse, political party or religion, but not his football club. ” Although the American market was more developed for sports and the audience levels were higher, Asian markets were larger and had more growth potential. Many European football clubs had gone to Asia and continued to go there to enerate short-term revenue (unlike other sports organisations such as the NBA which achieved success in Chinese markets with a long-term policy), building basketball courts and promoting basketball. The final boost came with Yao Ming, a Chinese basketball star competing in the NBA.

All top European football clubs were focusing on China in order to generate audiences that could eventually attract sponsors. The Italian Football Federation, for example, signed an agreement to play the final of the Italian 8 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Super Cup in Beijing.Chelsea was sponsoring a TV programme in China with a twofold objective: identify young talent and promote the Chelsea brand. According to a report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, football in China attracted the largest TV audiences of any sport (see Exhibit 12, ‘Hours of Sports Broadcasted on TV in China’).

One simple figure illustrating the newly achieved importance of international audiences was as follows: according to data from UEFA, only 10% of the people who watched FC Barcelona during its Champions League matches in the season 2006/2007 were from Spain (see Exhibit 13, ‘UEFA Champions League – FC Barcelona’s TV Total Audience’).Also, data on the FC Barcelona’s website traffic indicated that 44% of the visitors browsed the club’s website in English, 37% in Spanish, 17% in Catalan, 2% in Japanese and 1% in Chinese. Mes que un club10 As mentioned above, President Narcis de Carreras first defined FC Barcelona as ‘More than just a club’ in 1968. This popular and short sentence agglutinated some of the essence of FC Barcelona’s unique and complex values. FC Barcelona was one of the few top football clubs owned by its members. One of the main pillars of FC Barcelona’s values was its social commitment.

During the years of Franco’s dictatorship when many Catalan institutions were forbidden, FC Barcelona became a symbol of freedom, Catalan identity and democracy, a kind of guarantor of democratic values. With the restoration of democracy in Spain, some people believed that these values should probably not have had the same strength they enjoyed in the past. However, FC Barcelona maintained a strong Catalan identity and a flair for being different, of being ‘more than just a club’. In the last few years, FC Barcelona also enacted many socially responsible initiatives.The most famous one was the historic 2007 agreement signed with UNICEF, the United Nations agency in charge of protecting children’s rights.

This pioneering sponsorship agreement made FC Barcelona the only club in the world paying €1. 5 million a year to wear the UNICEF logo on its shirts, compared to other top football clubs in Europe which earned between €20 and €25 million per year to sport a commercial company’s logo. Another basic feature of FC Barcelona’s values was the desire for its teams to play offensively and in an spectacular way.At FC Barcelona, football was understood as entertainment for people. Therefore, it was not only important to win – but to do so and play well – based on team spirit rather than individual                                                              10 It is written in Catalan and translates into English as ‘More than just a club’. 9 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ players, and preferably with a significant number of players who had come up through the ranks of FC Barcelona junior teams.

The German consulting company Sport+Markt estimated that FC Barcelona had 216. 4 million fans worldwide: 42. 9 million in Europe (including 7. 8 million in Spain), 50.

9 million in Americas and 122. 6 million in Asia and the Middle East. Managing the FC Barcelona Brand The football industry had many unique qualities which made managing its brands more challenging than in other industries. Like in many other football clubs, the main challenge for the FC Barcelona brand was that its performance was often closely related to the team’s results on the field.

Actually, the football team’s performance was the most important leverage for the FC Barcelona brand’s growth: the more titles the team won, the more the brand increased its value, image and awareness. Unfortunately, achieving continued and sustained success in football was not always possible. Therefore, the marketing department at a club like FC Barcelona had to promote the brand in order to acquire and maintain value, if possible, regardless of the uncertainty of the team’s results. Unzueta recalled: “In the world of sports, one day you win and the next day you lose.

It is cyclical… Our role is to explain the brand values, what makes us different from our competitors…” Also, like other sports and unlike other industries, feelings mattered a great deal. People in charge of managing any football club, and FC Barcelona was no exception, had to be aware that they had a lot of supporters behind them with strong feelings about their clubs. In addition, the FC Barcelona marketing department had to think about many different stakeholders when making decisions.Unlike private companies, where judgements were made at the end of the year, football clubs were judged on a daily basis by many different media on a number of different issues and analysing every single decision. Only in Spain there were four major daily sports newspapers, and football often accounted for more than half of the daily content.

The media generated a lot of information every day about the team and the players, giving it publicity and raising a lot of awareness about the brand. However, this information could not be controlled by the marketing department.Sometimes, the information published was not necessarily aligned with the objectives and messages transmitted by this department. Marketing and merchandising were important sources of income.

FC Barcelona shirts, caps, scarves, and many other products were sold everyday in a significant number of stores, including FC Barcelona-owned or licensed stores. 10 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ FC Barcelona had more than 120 licensing agreements, covering more than 2,000 different products using the FC Barcelona brand.One of Unzueta’s tasks was to make sure that the brand was licensed for appropriate products. As Unzueta put it: “We cannot allow our image to be massively represented by the FC Barcelona crest because this could potentially dilute our brand. Licenses have to be based not only on the crest but also on other themes… And we have to look for market niches with more added value.

” Indeed, there were many other stakeholders inside the club, from football players and their representatives to technical staff, club members, and the Board of Directors.The individual interests of some of these stakeholders were not necessarily aligned with the FC Barcelona interests. For instance, in 2006 the club started to negotiate with the online bookmaker betandwin. com to sponsor the team’s shirt. When the media learned about these negotiations, a huge controversy erupted, involving even politicians expressing their opinions about this possible deal.

Some stakeholders considered that a bookmaker was neither morally appropriate nor aligned with the values of the club. Whether or not these opinions were right, the negotiations were broken and betandwin. om finally signed with FC Barcelona’s archrival Real Madrid. Another big challenge Unzueta and his marketing team had to face was that, even though FC Barcelona revenues were close to €400 million, the marketing budget was very limited. It was thus forced to manage a brand with very strong brand awareness but on a limited budget.

What should be done next? Unzueta was well aware that a major challenge for FC Barcelona was how to expand globally, entering and pursuing growth in markets like North America or Asia, with high growth potential but where football was not the most popular sport.In addition, the main issue was how the FC Barcelona brand and its values could be transferred to foreign markets. Unzueta’s thoughts were interrupted by the phone ringing. “Here we go,” he thought, “the first of an endless number of phone calls that are about to follow.

” 11 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 1: FC Barcelona Presidents Walter Wild (1899-1901) Bartomeu Terrades (1901-1902) Paul Haas (1902-1903) Arthur Witty (1903-1905) Josep Soler (1905-1906) Juli Marial (1906-1908)Vicenc Reig (1908) Hans Gamper (1908-1909 / 1910-1913 / 1917-1919 / 1921-1923 / 1924-1925) Otto Gmelin (1909-1910) Francesc de Moxo (1913-1914) Alvar Presta (1914) Joaquim Peris de Vargas (1914-1915) Rafael Llopart (1915-1916) Gaspar Roses (1916-1917 / 1920-1921 / 1930-1931) Ricard Graells (1919-1920) Enric Cardona (1923-1924) Arcadi Balaguer (1925-1929) Tomas Roses (1929-1930) Antoni Oliver (1931) Joan Coma (1931-1934) Esteve Sala (1934-1935) Josep Sunyol (1935-1936) Managing commission during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) Joan Soler (1939-1940) Enrique Pineyro, Marques de la Mesa de Asta (1940-1942 / 1942-1943) Josep Vidal-Ribas (1942) Josep Antoni de Albert (1943) Josep Vendrell (1943-1946) Agusti Montal i Galobart (1946-1952) Enric Marti Carreto (1952-1953) Francesc Miro-Sans (1953-1961) Enric Llaudet (1961-1968) Narcis de Carreras (1968-1969) Agusti Montal i Costa (1969-1977) Raimon Carrasco i Azemar (1977-1978) Josep Lluis Nunez (1978-2000) Joan Gaspart i Solves (2000-2003) Enric Reyna i Martinez (2003) Joan Laporta i Estruch (2003-to date) Source: FC Barcelona website 12 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 2: FC Barcelona Crests over Time 1899 910 Design by Carles Comamala 1949 During the Franco regime, the club was forced to use the Spanish version, Club de Futbol Barcelona 2002 Redesign by Claret Serrahima Source: FC Barcelona 13 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 3: Top European Football Club Revenues, 2008/2009 (in millions of €) Note: for a more meaningful comparison, some significant non-football activities and/or capital transactions were excluded from these revenue sources. Source: Football Money League 2010 (Sports Business Group at Deloitte), p. 2 14 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 4: FC Barcelona Financial Highlights Operating Income (in millions of €)Operating Expenses (in millions of €) Source: FC Barcelona 15 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 5: FC Barcelona Number of Members (1899-2009) Source: FC Barcelona 16 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 6: Revenue Sources for Top European Football Clubs 2008/2009 (in millions of €) Note: Matchday revenues refer to ticket sales, including season tickets and membership fees. Commercial revenues include sponsorship and merchandising revenues. Source: Football Money League 2010 (Sports Business Group at Deloitte) 17 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 7: Highest Transfer Fees for Football Players – All SeasonsYear 2009 2001 2009 2009 2000 2000 2001 2001 2006 2002 1999 2002 2008 2001 2001 2008 2001 2000 2008 2007 2005 2003 2004 2004 Player Cristiano Ronaldo Zinedine Zidane Zlatan Ibrahimovic Kaka Luis Figo Hernan Crespo Gianluigi Buffon Gaizka Mendieta Andriy Shevchenko Rio Ferdinand Christian Vieri Ronaldo Robinho Juan Sebastian Veron Rui Costa Dani Alves Pavel Nedved Marc Overmars Dimitar Berbatov Fernando Torres Michael Essien David Beckham Wayne Rooney Didier Drogba From (Selling Team) Manchester United Juventus Inter Milan AC Milan FC Barcelona Parma Parma Valencia AC Milan Leeds United Lazio Inter Milan Real Madrid Lazio Fiorentina Sevilla Lazio Arsenal FC Tottenham Hotspur Atletico de Madrid Olympique Lyon Manchester United FC Everton Olympique MarseilleTo (Buying Team) Real Madrid Real Madrid FC Barcelona Real Madrid Real Madrid Lazio Juventus Roma Chelsea Manchester United Inter Milan Real Madrid Manchester City Manchester United AC Milan FC Barcelona Juventus FC Barcelona Manchester United Liverpool FC Chelsea FC Real Madrid Manchester United Chelsea FC Transfer fee (in millions of €) 94. 0 73.

5 69. 5 65. 0 60. 0 55. 0 54. 2 48.

0 46. 0 46. 0 45. 0 45.

0 43. 0 42. 6 42. 0 41.

5 41. 2 40. 0 38. 0 38. 0 38. 0 37.

5 37. 0 37. 0 Note: FC Barcelona paid Inter Milan €48 million for Zlatan Ibrahimovic, plus the transfer of Samuel Eto’o. Source: Transfemarkt 18 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 8: Media Value for the Main Football Payers (2008/2009)Rank Player 1 Lionel Messi 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cristiano Ronaldo Kaka Wayne Rooney Fernando Torres Steven Gerrard Didier Drogba Thierry Henry Samuel Eto’o Carlos Tevez David Beckham Ronaldinho Frank Lampard Zlatan Ibrahimovic Xavi Cesc Fabregas Raul Rio Ferdinand Andres Iniesta Franck Ribery Nationality Team Argentina FC Barcelona Portugal Brazil England Spain England Ivory Coast France Cameroon Argentina England Brazil England Sweden Spain Spain Spain England Spain France Manchester United AC Milan Manchester United Liverpool Liverpool Chelsea FC Barcelona FC Barcelona Manchester United AC Milan AC Milan Chelsea Inter Milan FC Barcelona Arsenal Real Madrid Manchester United FC Barcelona Bayern MunchenLeague Spain England Italy England England England England Spain Spain England Italy Italy England Italy Spain England Spain England Spain Germany Media Value 21. 9 21. 0 14.

6 11. 9 11. 7 11. 6 10. 2 10.

2 10. 0 9. 5 9. 2 8. 9 8. 6 8.

2 8. 2 7. 7 7. 3 7. 2 7. 0 6.

7 Note: Media value index calculated as a combination of popularity (measured by the number of web pages related to each player) and notoriety (press coverage), measures prestige, public attraction and mass media exposure. Source: Report on Media Value in Football (June 2009). Economics, Sport and Intangibles (ESI) Research Group, University of Navarra (Spain), p. 3 19 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 9: Media Value for the Main Football Clubs (2008/2009)Rank Team 1 Barcelona 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Manchester United Chelsea AC Milan Real Madrid Liverpool Inter Milan Arsenal Bayern Munchen Juventus Roma Atletico de Madrid Manchester City Tottenham Valencia Werder Bremen Fiorentina Everton Olympique Lyon Villareal League Spain England England Italy Spain England Italy England Germany Italy Italy Spain England England Spain Germany Italy England France Spain Media Value 86. 2 86.

0 58. 5 49. 8 48. 5 47. 0 39. 5 36.

9 30. 9 26. 1 23. 9 18.

7 16. 4 15. 4 14. 9 14. 1 13. 3 13.

3 13. 2 12. 8 Source: Report on Media Value in Football (June 2009). Economics, Sport and Intangibles (ESI) Research Group, University of Navarra (Spain), p. 5 20 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’Exhibit 10: Supporter Base for Football Clubs in Europe (in millions) FC Barcelona Real Madrid Manchester United Chelsea FC Zenit St. Petersburg Liverpool FC Arsenal FC AC Milan FC Bayern Munich Juventus FC CSKA Moscow Inter Milan Olympique Lyon Olympique Marseille Galatasaray SK FC Spartak Moscow Fenerbahce Istambul Wisla Krakow AFC Ajax FC Dynamo Moscow 11.

1 10. 3 9. 4 9. 4 9. 0 8. 1 7.

3 6. 5 6. 5 5. 7 17. 5 21.

3 21. 0 19. 8 23. 0 25.

6 23. 9 37. 6 41. 0 44. 2 Source: Sport+Markt Football Top 20 (2008/2009) 21 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 11: Revenue Growth amongst Selected European Clubs (in millions of €) from 2000/2001 to 2008/2009Source: Football Money League 2010 (Sports Business Group at Deloitte), p. 32 22 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 12: Hours of Sports Broadcasted on TV in China (January-August 2009) Football Basketball Tennis Snooker Badminton Table tennis Boxing/Combat sports Volleyball Golf Motorsports X Games 2,400 1,515 1,487 1,055 916 776 644 485 4,056 8,046 16,374 Source: The Big League? The Business of Sport in China.

A Report from the Economist Intelligence Unit, p. 8, based on data from TNS Sport China 2009. 23 Case Study ‘FC Barcelona: More than just a club’ Exhibit 13: 2006/2007 UEFA Champions League – FC Barcelona’s Total TV Audience (in millions and in %) Source: UEFA 24

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