Family Systems Therapy And Family Systems Theories
Family Systems Therapy is undergirded by a assortment of theoretical attacks all of which focuses on homo jobs which result from relationships. As persons we are encouraged to be independent, independent, do our picks and accept the effects of these picks. This individualist stance seems to belie the world that we are born into households and pass our lives attached to a household either our ain creative activity or one into which we are born. It is within these households that we learn, grow and develop. It is to these households we turn in times of adversities or victory.
Family Systems Theories postulate that persons are best understood within the context of their household. Like a life being, households have belongingss which none of the persons have, these belongingss are destroyed when members of the household are considered as persons. Family systems theories shift the focal point from persons to the forms in their relationships. Nichols 2009aˆ¦p102. The behaviours manifested in one household member are linked to the behavior of other members and may be a trademark of how the household system maps non merely symptoms of one member ‘s maladjustment.
The troubles of the showing household member may, harmonizing to Corey 2009aˆ¦ p.412
Serve a map and intent in the household
Be accidentally maintained by the household
Be a map of the household ‘s inability to run fruitfully
Be a symptom of the dysfunctional forms handed down across coevalss.
This sort of attack is really different from the model of single psychological science which conceptualizes human job in an intrapsychic model.
The organic structure of cognition known as Family Systems Theory arises from observations by counsellors as they work with persons and their household. Harmonizing to household system theories households are systems of interrelated and mutualist persons. They do non be in isolation whatever affects the single affects the full system.
Possibly the most cardinal construct of how households operate is that the household is a system which has a inclination to “ keep stableness by utilizing information about its public presentation as feedback ” Nichols ( 2009 ) aˆ¦p98. In this theoretical model a household is considered to be cybernetic. At the bosom of cybernetics is the feedback cringle which determines whether the current operation of the system is acceptable and if non attempts to do the necessary alterations. The feedback can either be negative or positive. Negative feedback is non bad but indicates that the system needs to take disciplinary steps to return to stableness. Positive feedback may hold negative effects as it may function to reenforce an mistake in the system. In order to keep this stableness, there are household regulations and household functions. Family Roles-this is a description of what is expected of each household member. At a basic degree there are functions of male parent, female parent, girl, sister and so on, but there are less obvious functions for illustration one member may presume the function of the responsible one or the humourous one as the instance may be.
Family Rules-these are frequently understood by member of the household although non written down and frequently mute ; they set guidelines for how the household operates. For illustration a household would understand who makes the concluding determination in of import affairs. Although household members may see these “ regulations ” as merely the manner things are they may or may non be cognizant that different households would make the same thing otherwise.
The innovators of household therapy recognized that societal and cultural forces shape our values, ideas and our construct of normal, but it was Murray Bowen that foremost defined a household theory. Harmonizing to him, the history of our household creates a cast that shapes our values ideas and experiences. He farther suggested that this cast is passed from one coevals to the following.
Bowen ‘s theory focuses on two compensating life forces. The first is togetherness and the 2nd is individualism. When a household portions excessively much togetherness, merger is created and where there is excessively much individualism the consequence is estranged household. He introduced eight interrelated construct to explicate how households develop and map.
Differentiation of ego is the ability to separate and keep personal ideas experiencing ends and individuality in the face of emotional and societal force per unit areas to make differently.Differentiation of ego is the basis of Bowen ‘s theory. This involves the psychological separation of mind and emotions and the independency of self signifier others. It is ability to believe and reflect and non react automatically to emotional force per unit area. Differentiated people have the ability to equilibrate their feeling and ideas, they are capable of strong emotion, yet posses self restraint. They are able to take a base on issues and have the ability to believe make up one’s mind and move on what they believe. Undifferentiated people act emotionally they tend to be hotheaded exposing submissiveness or rebelliousness. They find it hard to be independent and are unable to take clear place on issues. They tend to reflect the dominant emotional form in the household.
Emotional trigons are formed when two people who are unable to decide a job draw a 3rd individual into the struggle. The 3rd party ‘s engagement may be short lived so coercing the two people to decide their differences. If the 3rd parties involvement becomes long term so a trigon becomes a portion of the relationship. Triangulation ease the tenseness but “ freezes the struggle in topographic point ” Nicholas ( 2008 ) aˆ¦p128 and finally undermines the relationship. Harmonizing to Nicholas 2008 most household jobs are triangular.
Nuclear Family Emotional procedures are the emotional forms in a household that continue over coevalss. A spouse who lacks distinction in his her household of beginning may go emotionally cut off from hisher parents and this would take to fusion in matrimony. Fusion can bring forth different effects on the matrimony including emotional distance between spouses, matrimonial struggles, physical or emotional disfunction in one spouse or projection of the job on one or more of the kids Nicholas & A ; Shwartz, 2008aˆ¦ P 128.
A parent deficiency of distinction is transmitted to kids in Family projection procedure. An uniform female parent may go attach to a kid ( or kids ) because she has decided that her partner is inattentive to her. The female parent would project her deficiency of distinction to the kid who is most affiliated. This kid will accomplish least distinction and more vulnerable to problems. “ aˆ¦the more the female parent forces her attending n the kid the more the kid ‘s operation is impaired ” Nichols and Shwartz,2008 — -p129
Multigenerational Transmission Process describes the transmittal of anxiousness from one coevals to another. This is the unconscious passing on of anxiousness which overrides the adaptative thought and behaviour of wining coevalss.
Sibling Position – kids develop personality features based on their place in the household.
Emotional Cut Off describes the manner people manage anxiousness between coevalss. “ the greater the emotional merger between parents and kids the greater likeliness of cut off ” Nicholas and Shwartz 2008aˆ¦p130
Social Emotional procedures are societal outlook and their consequence on the household.
Harmonizing to Bowen, all households lie along a continuum and there are no types of household. He believes that optimum household development occurs when members are differentiated and keep a healthy contact with each other. For Bowen, household jobs are the consequence of emotional merger. Typically the household member with the symptom is the 1 who is to the lowest degree differentiated. This member is unable to divide hisher ideas from the households and absorbs the anxiousnesss of the full household.
Structural household theory emphasizes the demand for parents to keep a clear hierarchal place of authorization. The beginnings of the theory can be traced to early 1960 ‘s to Salvador Minuchin who formulated the theory and set guidelines for curative techniques. The theory is built on three constituent construction, subsystems and boundaries.
Structure refers to the organized form in which households interact. Nicholas & A ; Shwartz 2008aˆ¦p185. It describes the forms of authorization, pass oning and interacting. Patterns develop as household minutess are repeated. In clip these forms become embedded and define functions and maps of household members making predictability of the household interactions. These repeats create outlooks that set up regulations in the household. Although options are available the household seldom considers them and even in state of affairss where forms are dysfunctional, they are maintained. Dysfunction patterns give rise to a dysfunctional household construction. Harmonizing to Minuchin, it is this dysfunctional construction which is the beginning of household jobs.
Harmonizing to structural household theory each household system has subsystems. These are sub groups within the household construction which exist to carry through assorted household undertakings. Subsystem may be determined along the lines of coevals, gender, function and involvements. For illustration there are bridal subsystem and kid subsystems. Within the subsystem each household member plays a different function. When one subsystem intrudes into another causes structural troubles and indicates that boundaries between subsystems are diffuse. Diffuse boundaries can ensue in enmeshment. On the other manus boundaries which are stiff consequence in detachment. Clear boundaries blend features which are both stiff and diffuse. When there are clear boundaries parents occupies a place of leading in the household.
There are some facets of the theoretical concepts of both Bower Family Systems Theory and Minuchins Structural Family Theory that are changeless with my ain universe position. Like Bowen, I believe that our household ‘s history creates a templet which shapes our values ideas and experiences and many of these values ideas and experiences are passed down through coevalss. However this templet in my sentiment is merely one of the possible templet which form values ideas and experiences as there are many mills other than one ‘s household of beginning which influence who we become. Many individuals can see the household form and do a witting determination to construct a life with different forms. In this manner the form in the household of beginning is a powerful determiner but instead than been a templet of what should be these forms is templet of what to avoid.
The construct of distinction is basis of Bowenian theory and I portion Bowen ‘s position that deficiency of distinction can be transmitted from coevals to coevals. Parental deficiency of distinction may attest itself in kids who are either emotionally fused or rebellious taking to emotional cutoff from household of beginning. Bowen nevertheless seems to stress the female parent ‘s function in the procedure of go throughing anxiousness from one coevals to another. In my sentiment he has pathologized the maternal function. Our societal norms have prepared female parents to presume a nurturing function and this is non pathological. Bowen ‘s belief that there is a “ chronic anxiousness in all life that is both emotional and physical ” Gladding 2009 p.235 is really different from my over universe position. By and large the prominence given to anxiety as a specifying force in all life is really foreign to my personal belief and system. My worldview starts from the opposite terminal. I see all of life filled with hope and picks. A life governed by anxiousness is a life that chooses anxiousness.
It is my belief that the construction, subsystems and boundaries are three indispensable constituents of households. Family construction sets out the form of authorization and the lines of communicating. I strongly believe that parents should be in charged in every household and the kids should cognize this. Parents should show a united forepart to kids and any dissension they have between themselves should non be played out with the kids. Thus is one manner of guaranting that the parent and kid subsystems remain separate. To guarantee separation clear boundaries must be set up between the subsystems.
I believe that most household disfunctions are the consequence of structural jobs. Where there is no construction kids develop chronic uncertainness which affects their overall operation. Some kids are at one extreme of badly maladaptive behaviour while others are at the other extreme of over counterbalancing behaviour to derive favour. Along this full continuum is the common yarn of low ego regard. Keeping the household subsystems separated by clear boundaries in necessary for a healthy operation household. Parents and kids portion their lives but parents ‘ relationship is maintained separate without menace from the relationship with kids. These clear boundaries set up a hierarchal construction in which parents occupy a place of leading.
I believe that in Jamaica household construction jobs and individual parent families is a sort of poulet and egg state of affairs. As the individual parent attempts to counterbalance for the absent parent, kid and parent subsystems are confused as boundaries become stiff, defused, enmeshed and even destroyed. Often in these families it is difficult to state who is in charge and this leads to a broad scope of jobs including ill will between kids and parents incest and other types of maltreatment. Many of these kids assume grownup functions before they are ready which consequence in early ( individual ) rearing to get down the rhythm one time more.
It is hard for me to associate my ain household to Bowerian household theory. Bowen ‘s accent on anxiousness in the household of beginning has no currency with me personally. Anxiety was non a portion of my childhood. My parents were extremely differentiated persons who were independent minds. I am unable to see any triangulation and multigenerational transmittal of anxiousness. Among my nine siblings I do non even see birth order as an of import consideration alternatively I see us accept each other as persons with different abilities, endowment, strengths and failings. My household of beginning was decidedly ordered along the lines on Minuchin ‘s Structural Family Theory. There was a steadfast construction in topographic point with strong subsystems and clear boundaries. We were nurtured and cared as kids and guided into maturity. We were encouraged and taught to be ourselves and the sibling all get along. My oldest sibling is 72 and my youngest is 49. We all agree that if our parent had any favourites among their kids we can non state.
The Bowenian Theory in reding and psychotherapeutics is applied to follow forms of household jobs with a position to place emotional responsiveness and triangulation. The genogram has been found to be a utile appraisal tool to place these two issues. The purpose of the healer is to de-triangulate persons and assist them to develop distinction. Along the manner parents go better equipt to pull off their ain anxiousnesss and less likely to convey these anxiousness to their kids.
Structural Family Theory underlines a therapy that seeks to reorganise households. The implicit in premise is that the household ‘s troubles are as a consequence of the organisational construction.
The structural healer assesses the presenting jobs in four stairss First involve the whole household in the job, secondly assist them see how the household exchanges continue and support and perpetuate the job. The healer so exposes the impact of the yesteryear on the job and eventually explores options which the household members can take to associate in more productive ways that “ will make displacement in the household construction and aid decide the presenting ailment ” ( Nicholas and Schuartz 2009 p.196 ) .
Bowen and Minuchin had really different positions of the beginning of disfunction in persons but both agreed that the dominant force in our lives is located in our households. Therapies based on this theoretical model is directed at altering the organisation of the household. When this is done so the operation of the person will be altered. This is non a alteration on the present single merely, but the whole household alterations. In this manner the single alteration has a greater likeliness of staying a lasting one.