Exploration

They sailed from Norway west across the Atlantic Ocean. They stopped at Greenland and then to Newfoundland, Canada.
Leif Erikson and the Vikings
He wrote a book about his travels to Asia.
Marco Polo
The land route from Europe to Asia. Europeans had to travel long, difficult, and unsafe routes to reach Asia.
The Silk Road
Difficulties faced by European Explorers
1. Needed better maps and technology for their long voyages.
2. Needed a lot of money for the costs of their expeditions.
3. There were many unknown dangers in exploring unknown seas and lands.
Scientific knowledge and tools
Technology
The science of planning and following a route
Navigation
A trip taken with the goal of exploring
Expedition
A tool to help find longitude. Tells what direction traveled and distance from east to west.
Compass
A tool to help find latitude. Uses the position of the sun, moon, and stars. Tells what distance is traveled from north to south.
Astrolabe
Goal of European Explorers
To find a faster and easier route to Asia
Risks of Exploration
1.Loose ship and supplies
2.Won’t find riches
3.Won’t find new land
4.Expensive
Benefits of Exploration
1.Establish new trade and routes
2. Find gold and riches
3.Find new land
4.Spread Christianity
Cost of Exploration
1.Ships
2.Crew
3.Supplies
Benefits of the Caravel
1.Carry more goods
2. Sail quicker
3.Sail longer distances
-From Italy
-Sailed for Spain. Sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492.
-Believed he could sail west across the Atlantic Ocean to reach Asia.
-Had a crew of 90 men and his three ships were the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.
-He did not find a sea route to Asia, but did discover a new land.
Christopher Columbus
-From Italy
-Sailed for England
-Wanted to find wealth and land for England.
-Thought he reached Asia, but landed in Newfoundland, Canada
John Cabot
-From Italy
-Did not believe that Columbus and Cabot reached Asia and wanted to prove it.
-Realized the world was larger than people thought and that they (Columbus and Cabot) reached new land.
-A map maker named the new lands, America, in honor of Amerigo.
Amerigo Vespucci
-Spanish Explorer
-One of the first Europeans to settle in the Americas.
-He wanted to search for gold and riches.
-He heard about a large ocean so he crossed the isthmus of Panama and discovered an new ocean we now call the Pacific Ocean.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
A narrow strip of land that connects to large land areas.
Isthmus
-Portuguese Explorer
-Sailed for Spain.
-He wanted to find a western route to Asia.
-He named the ocean Balboa discovered, the Pacific Ocean.
-He is famous for being the first person to circumnavigate the globe.
Ferdinand Magellan
-A Spanish conquistador
-He wanted to find the Fountain of Youth.
-He conquered Puerto Rico and found Florida.
-He was the first Spanish explorer to set foot on land that became the US.
Ponce de Leon
A soldier or conquerors.
Conquistador
-Explored for Spain
-He wanted to find gold in the Aztec Indian land.
-He landed in Mexico and defeated 5,000,000 Aztec Indians.
-He built Mexico City, the Spanish capital in the Americas, on Tenochtitlan.
Hernando Cortes
-Explored for Spain
-He wanted to find the mythical golden cities.
-He never found gold or any other riches.
-He claimed the land for Spain.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
-A Spanish conquistador.
-He led 180 soldiers into the western coast of South America in 1531.
-He wanted to convert the Incas to Christianity.
-He killed the Incan king,Atahuallpa, and conquered the Incan empire.
Francisco Pizarro
-A Spanish conquistador.
-He wanted to find gold and riches.
-He did not find gold and riches, but claimed land for Spain.
-He was the first European to see the Mississippi River.
Hernando de Soto
A waterway that would be a shortcut to Asia by sailing through or around North America, would have control over a trade route between Europe and Asia
The Northwest Passage
-From Italy.
-He sailed for France.
-He wanted to find the Northwest Passage.
-He searched the coastline of North America and South America.
-He sailed into many bays and rivers, but never found the Northwest Passage.
Giovanni da Verrazano
-Sailed from France
-He wanted to find the Northwest Passage and search for gold.
-He reached the Saint Lawrence River and Quebec.
-He did not find gold or the Northwest Passage, but he claimed land for France.
Jacques Cartier
-From England.
-He claimed land for the Dutch and England and found the a Straight, Bay, and River.
-His crew mutinied because of cold weather and much suffering and set him and 8 others adrift on a small boat. They were never seen again.
Henry Hudson
To rebel against the leader or group
Mutiny

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