Exam Review

Volume
the amount of three dimensional space an object occupies
mass
the measure of the amount of matter
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of the element
element
a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom
compound
a substance that can be broken down into simple, stable substances and is made up of more than one type of atom
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
physical change
change that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
extensive properties
properties that depend on the amount of matter that is present. *Ex: mass, volume, energy
intensive properties
properties that don’t depend on the amount of matter present. *Ex: melting point, density, boiling point
change of state
a physical change of a substance from one state to another
plasma
a high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons
solids
definite shape and definite volume
liquid
indefinite shape and definite volume
gas
indefinite volume and indefinite shape
chemistry
the study of the composition, structure, and properties of the matter, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes
organic chemistry
the study of most carbon-containing compounds. EXCEPT: CO, CO2, HCO3
inorganic chemistry
the study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometals)
physical chemistry
the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
analytical chemistry
the identification of the components and composition of materials (quantitative and qualitative data)
biochemistry
the study of processes occurring in living things
theoretical chemistry
the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds
chemical
any substance that has a definite composition. *Ex: sucrose, water, CO2. (pure things, ENTIRE periodic table)
basic research
research carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge
applies research
research that is carried out to solve a problem
substance
pure thing with unvarying composition
scientific method
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating and testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
observing
the use of the senses to obtain information
qualitative data
descriptive data
quantitative data
numerical data
system
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
control
the experimental condition that remains constant
variables
any experimental conditions that change
model
an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related.
*visual, verbal, or mathematical
theory
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
atomic number
the number of the atom; it identifies the atom; NEVER changes; it is always equal to the number of protons
atomic mass
the entire chemical number on the periodic table; it is the AVERAGE atomic mass in amus of all the naturally occurring isotopes; it must have a unit; if there is one mole of the unit then the unit is grams instead of amus.
mass number
PROTONS + NEUTRONS = ?
it is always a whole number because its a number of things, not a measurement; it is the atomic mass rounded off to a whole number when looking at averages from the chart
electrons
if it’s an atom, it’s equal to the number of protons
neutrons
MASS # – PROTONS
these change if you have isotope; the mass number will also change if you have isotopes
chemical reaction
the transformation of a substance into one or more new substances
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