Exam One


  • consistent with Aristole and observation
  • first person to describe planets and stars
  • 200 CE

Nicolaus Copernicus

  • developed the solar centric model
  • everything went around the sun 
  • 1473-1534

Francis Bacon

  • no interest in mathermatics
  • one of the first to do induction
  • 1561-1626

Rene Descartes

  • mathematician 
  • came up with the X and Y axis
  • used matheical tools and had a math state of mind
  • 1596-1650

Tycho Brahe

  • collected data about planet without a telescope
  • 1546-1601

Johannes Kepler

  • data to derive a mathematical formal for eplliptical orbits
  • 1571-1630

Galileo Galilei

  • invented the telescope
  • discovered the moons of jupiter and phase of venus
  • 1564-1642

Isaac Newton

  • invented calculus
  • discovered laws of classic physics
  • founded modern optics
  • 1642-1726

Antoine- Laurent de Laoisier

  • weathly nobleman
  • beheaded during french revolutoin 
  • founded modern chemistry 
  • first person to understand chemical reactions
  • 1743-1794

J. Willard Gibbs

  • first american scientist 
  • developed chemical thermodynamics
  • 1839-1903

Albert Einstein

  • created theory of relativity 
  • 1879-1955

Gilbert Lewis


  • lewis dot structure
  • developed theory of chemical bond
  • 1875-1955

Linus Pauling

  • created modern language for describing chemical bonds
  • 1901-1994

Richard Feynman

  • funny
  • wrote a book
  • explained quantum mechanics to masses
  • help solve challenger space shuttle diaster 
  • 1918-1988

Carolyn Porco

  • american astromner 
  • leader of cassini spacecraft mission to Saturn
  • discovered water on saturns moon
  • 1953- 

Scientific Theory

  1. develop a hypothesis 
  2. elaborate the consquences of that hypothesis
  3. test the hypotesis against an experiment
  4. by induction hypothesis can be considered a law

distance from peak to peak
number of waves per unit time
ability to do work or the ability to create heat
particles of light
Wave Packet
short burst or envelope of localize wave action that travels as a unit
One billionth of a meter
Wavelength Range
400nm to 750nm
line perpendicular to the surface
Index of Refraction ( n )
(speed of light in a vaccum) divided by (speed of light in a medium)
when n veries with wavelength
Rayleigh Scattering

  • scattering from big stuff
  • scattered by dust particles

Tyndall Scattering


Scatters shorter wavelengths (blue)

scattered by air molecules

Blackbody Radiation
emits light depending only on temperature
depends only on the number of neutrons
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons
atomic number
number of protons
negatively charged ion
postively charged ion

measures light going through a substance


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