A linebacker intends to hurt and injure any receiver who catches a ball over the middle. This is an example of
Which of the following is NOT a useful step in resolving peer conflict (especially in teenagers) in a nonviolent way?
Express thoughts but not feelings.
According to a recent study, approximately what percentage of referees reported that they were the recipients of verbal abuse or physical abuse, respectively?
In the case study of Billy the hockey goalie, what did he learn?
how to be rough and tough without getting thrown out of the game
In the case study of head football coach Tom Martinez, Coach Martinez dealt with the area of aggressive play by
setting up specific guidelines distinguishing assertive play from inappropriate aggressive play
Most aggression in sport falls into which of the following categories?
Psychophysiological research on attentional processes in archers and pistol shooters has revealed that accuracy is increased when performers’ brain waves are in which frequency?
According to recent research (McKay & Wolf, 2011), a performer should have what type of focus for optimal performance?
The narrowing and internal focus associated with choking can result in
a and c (impaired timing and poor judgement and decision making)
Entirely focusing on body mechanics and movements
b and c (may be inappropriate once a skill becomes automatic and may be detrimental to performance because the mind gets in the way of the body)
Results from the study of self-talk among junior tennis players (Van Raalte et al., 1994) revealed that
there was more negative self-talk than positive self-talk
Top athletes seem to be able to do just the right thing at just the right time. From an attentional perspective, research has shown that this is mostly due to their ability to
analyze situations more quickly and use more anticipatory cues
Karageorghis and Terry (2011) provide a brief list of cutting-edge technologies that aim to enhance athletes’ concentration skills. Which of the following is included?
all of these
A good way to enhance young athletes’ perceptions of their abilities is to have them
focus on improving their own performance
In a recent review of studies investigating the effectiveness of interpersonal education programs for coaches, it was found that these programs
enhanced interpersonal effectiveness of coaches
Which of the following did Orlick and McCaffrey recommend for modifying arousal regulation strategies in children?
a and c (keep strategies fun and use concrete physical strategies)
In the study by Klint and Weiss on former competitive youth gymnasts, what percentage was still participating in gymnastics or another sport?
In terms of awareness of their behaviors, recent studies have found that youth coaches
have limited awareness of their behaviors
Based on research with elite high school wrestlers and distance runners, which of the following are the two major sources of the stress experienced by elite junior athletes?
fear of failure and feelings of inadequacy
Which of the following statements is true?
The benefits of sport participation depend on the quality of the adult leadership.
Which of the following is a common myth regarding children in sport?
a and b (athlete talent can be accurately predicted at a young age and stages of athletic development can be skipped)
Most sport psychologists are opposed to taking a professionalized approach to children’s sports because
it focuses the majority of resources on the most talented children
Dropout rates for youth sport participants have been estimated to be about what percentage each year?
According to the study by Simon and Martens comparing state anxiety before competitive sports to state anxiety before other childhood evaluative activities, the activity with the highest state anxiety levels was
Which of the following is true regarding parental behavior in youth sport?
all of these
Which of the following have shown the strongest relationship?
aggressive behavior and media violence
According to research, which of the following statements concerning spectator aggression is true?
all of these
Which of the following is NOT an explanation put forth to explain athletes’ aggressive behavior?
They were born with an aggressive urge.
Which of the following is NOT among the criteria for judging aggression?
Aggression must be directed toward a human being.
Which of the following is NOT a key element included in most definitions of concentration?
the ability to narrow attentional focus in all situations
Which of the following was recommended to help alleviate choking?
all of these
If just before a tee shot, a golfer shifts her attention from the length of the fairway and the direction of the wind to focusing only on the ball, her attention has shifted from _____ to _____.
Which of the following is true regarding self-talk and different cultures?
b and c (east asians had a higher percentage of negative to positive self-talk than did european americans and negative self-talk is related to poorer performance in european americans)
Skilled performers should focus on
An athlete who is losing in a tennis match might tell her opponent that she is “really following through on her serve nicely.” From an attentional perspective, this is a ploy to have the opponent
start to focus and think too much about her serve
A young athlete is at risk for developing heightened state anxiety if he has which of the following characteristics?
b and c (frequent worries about failure and low self-performance expectations)
In reviewing the literature that reported personal accounts of burnout among young athletes, Gould found which of the following to be important factors associated with the burnout?
b and c (parental pressure and very high self- and other-imposed expectations)
The professionalization of children’s sports can be seen in
all of these
According to the study by Coakley on youth sport burnout, which of the following was found to be characteristic of children who have burned out in sport?
a and b (they viewed themselves only as athletes and coaches and parents made all the important decisions with little input from the young athletes)
Which of the following is NOT one of the top five reasons given for participating in youth sport?
to make new friends
“No-look” passes in basketball are accomplished by using
advanced cues to predict teammates’ future movements
According to a recent study relating anxiety and attention regarding the “quiet eye,” it was found that
increased anxiety resulted in shorter duration of “quiet eye”
Most theories investigating the role of attention in performance have used what type of approach?
Developing competitive plans should focus on what type of goals?
According to a recent study by Mesagno and colleagues (2011), which of the following appeared to be an essential part of choking?
Individuals have an innate predisposition to be aggressive, which builds up and eventually must be expressed. This represents the major premise of which theory?
Bandura’s research showed that children who saw adult models commit violent acts repeated those acts more than children who were not exposed to such aggressive models. This supports which theory of aggression?
social learning theory
The research examining the relationship between aggression and performance supports which conclusion?
Aggression sometimes facilitates performance and sometimes does not.
According to more recent research by Anderson and Bushman, aggression ranging from instrumental to reactive should be viewed
along a continuum
“Good aggression” (playing within the rules with high intensity) is known in sport psychology as
The general aggression model proposes that when aggression occurs, it will be
thought out versus impulsive
The highest level (level 5) of moral reasoning is characterized by
taking into account what is best for all involved
Participation in sport keeps youths off the street and out of trouble. This is central to which explanation of the relationship between organized sport and delinquency?
The social learning approach to good sporting behavior and moral development is best summarized by the work of
Recent research by Moria Stuart indicates that children aged 10 to 12 had concerns about
a and c (the fairness of adult actions and negative game behaviors)
Consider an athlete who takes illegal performance-enhancing drugs and argues her actions are okay because everyone does it. At what stage of moral development is she?
eye for an eye
It has been proposed that sport participation can serve as an alternative to gang behavior by providing
b and c (exposure to positive role models and increased self-esteem)
In a summary of 20 years of research on moral development, Bredemeier and Shields found that
athletes’ game reasoning differs from reasoning used in everyday life
Which of the following statements is true?
Emphasizing winning does not automatically have a good or bad influence on building good sporting behavior.
Which of the following strategies is useful for enhancing moral development and good sporting behavior?
a and c (discuss moral dilemmas and reward good sporting behaviors and punish bad sporting behaviors)
A gang member took part in a soccer program designed to foster responsibility in gang members. In a quote, one member said that he constantly keeps with him five words that helped change his life. Which of the following was NOT one of these words?
According to the structural-developmental approach, moral reasoning depends in large part on the
cognitive development of the individual
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a and c (developing good sporting behavior through competitive sport involvement automatically transfers to nonphysical activity and physical educators and coaches should teach religious values to help build moral development)
Geibenk and McKenzie studied the use of social learning in a physical education setting, finding that
the use of modeling and reinforcement reduced the bad sporting behaviors of fifth-grade boys
Which of the following is NOT one of the moral action stages hypothesized by Miller and colleagues (1997)?
reviewing history of moral choices
Which of the following is NOT among the types of hazing?
The social-psychological approach to studying morality in sport emphasizes that
both personal and situational factors help determine good sporting behavior
Which of the following is among the strategies for developing resiliency in youth?
a and b (focus on individual strengths rather than weaknesses and link the program with the community)
Which of the following definitions does Martens think captures the meaning of good sporting behavior?
There is no universally accepted definition of good sporting behavior.
Physical education expert Eric Larson thinks that extracurricular activities can have a positive influence on youth development because
b and c (sport efforts are directed toward a goal over time and sport requires youth to experience setbacks and overcome challenges)
A study by Rudd and Gordon (2009) focusing on fan behavior in sport found that fans believed
it is legitimate to distract opponents in order to win
An athlete who does the right thing when faced with a moral dilemma possesses what virtue?
In a study investigating moral development in elementary school children and the Fair Play for Kids activities, it was found that
both Fair Play groups had higher moral development than the control group
“Cue” words are often effective because
a and b (they can help trigger a particular response and they can be motivational or emotionally stimulating)
According to Nideffer, effective attenders indicate that they can
a and b ( deal well with a multitude of stimuli from both external and internal sources and effectively switch their attention from broad to narrow focus when necessary)
Athletes with a preference for a broad-external focus
seem to notice everything that is happening around them
From an attentional perspective, overlearning of skills
makes the skills more automatic, thus requiring less attention
Using a trigger word to stop negative self-statements is called
A response to either good or bad performances that causes a personal, ego-involved reaction during competition is known as
“Mental representations of alternatives to past occurrences, features, and states” is the definition of
According to Coakley (2006), parents are becoming overly involved in their child’s sport because
their child’s success reflects their worth as a parent
Smith, Smoll, and Curtis (1979), in phase 2 of their study comparing an experimental group of coaches using a positive approach with a control group of coaches, found that players who played for experimental coaches
a and b (rated their coaches as better teachers and liked their teammates and coaches more)
In 1990, the Women’s Tennis Association instituted a rule regarding age eligibility that limited the amount of tournament play for young players. Looking at its success over a 10-year period, it was found that
a and c (career length increased significantly and premature retirements were reduced)
Gould and Martens found that, on average, children participated for ____ hours per week in their specific sport.
Research has indicated that participants in youth sport differ from dropouts in what psychological attribute?
In which of the following situations is aggression likely to occur?
b and c (when participants are embarrassed and when participants perceive they are the recipients of poor officiating)
Research testing the catharsis notion of spectator aggression has shown that
b and d (fans become more aggressive after watching violent contact sports and fans become more aggressive under the influence of alcohol)
According to a research study (Tracelet et al., 2011) with soccer players, what reason was in the top five given for aggressive and anti-social behaviors by players?
a and b (displacing responsibility to others and moral justification)
Smith’s research concerning violence in hockey showed that
a and b (many coaches, parents, and teammates accept and reinforce the modeling of aggressive acts and violence is modeled by young amateur hockey players)
The study by Gee and Lee (2007) investigating aggressive play and hockey found that
North American players exhibited more aggressive acts (incurring penalties) than did European players
According to Arnold’s work, in order for character to be developed through sport and physical activity,
character development needs to be a mind-set of physical activity leaders
Which of the following is NOT one of the levels in Hellison’s levels of responsibility model?
Character development is most facilitated by building a
Recent evidence indicates that approximately what percentage of youth athletes try to hurt an opponent?
The process of experience and growth by which an individual develops the capacity to morally reason is the definition of
According to Shields and Bredemeier, morality in sport includes
all of these