Evaluation of theories and practices of Councelling Essay
Discuss two attacks, evaluate their theory and pattern. Which attack is your penchant and why?
Guidance has been defined by the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy ( BACP, 2009 ) as “ speaking therapy, ” which “ involves a contractual agreement between the healer and the client where they run into, in privateness and assurance, to research a trouble or straiten the client may be sing ” ( p. 1 ) . It works through the development of a curative relationship whereby the counselor actively and attentively listens to the client in order to derive insight and understanding into the troubles the client is confronted with, from the client ‘s position. Using different techniques, the counselor can seek to assist the client to work through these troubles, to understand them, and to work out them or accept them, depending on what the troubles are. Importantly, reding does non work by the proviso of advice or way ; alternatively, the counselor helps the client to derive command in directing their ain lives.
Reding can be short-run or long-run, every bit good as single or provided to households, twosomes, or administrations ( Coren, 2001 ) . Reding techniques and methods will change harmonizing to the attack or theoretical footing from which a counselor plant. Examples of different attacks to reding include cognitive-behavioural therapy, solution-focused guidance, art therapy, person-centred guidance, psychodynamic guidance, and trauma therapy. A counselor might follow one attack within all of their work or take an eclectic attack whereby the theoretical model adopted depends on the client ( e.g. their age ) or the job ( e.g. depression, phobic disorder ) .
The two guidance attacks discussed within this essay are person-centred guidance and cognitive-behavioural therapy. The theory underlying these attacks will be outlined, followed by illustrations of techniques used, and grounds of efficaciousness.
Person-centred guidance, besides known as ‘client-centred ‘ or ‘Rogerian ‘ guidance, is a humanistic attack to reding founded by Carl Rogers in the 1950s ( Rogers, 1951 ) . The attack is based on the premise that human existences are experts of themselves and that they have entree to their ain innate adept resources of self-understanding and autonomy. The function of the counselor is therefore to supply a facilitative environment and relationship for the client to happen these resources within themselves.
In order to supply this facilitative environment and relationship, the counselor footing their interactions with the client on three cardinal rules:
1 ) They are congruous ( echt ) with the client, which can affect the counselor demoing their ain human traits through appropriate and timely personal revelation. This contrasts many other attacks to guidance, which tend to advance a more formal relationship between counselor and client.
2 ) They provide unconditioned positive respect, even if a client divulges something that the counselor disagrees with ; the counselor remains accepting and lovingness of the client. Roger ‘s believed this was of import for clients to turn and make their full potency.
3 ) They expressA empathy ( the ability to understand what the client is experiencing ) andA understanding towards the client. By supplying empathy, the clients ‘ feelings are validated, which can be an of import portion of traveling through and beyond those feelings.
These three key rules show how the primary focal point in person-centred guidance is the relationship between the counselor and client. The person-centred counselor seeks to set up a trusting relationship with the client in whom the client can bit by bit face anxiousnesss, confusion and other negative emotions.
Cardinal to person-centred guidance is the impression of ‘self-concept, ‘ which refers to the perceptual experiences and beliefs the client holds about themselves. The self-concept is influenced by an person ‘s experience of the universe and comprises three constituents:
Self-worth ( self-esteem ) – ideas about the ego, which develop in early childhood and from experiences with parents or defenders.
Self-image – perceptual experiences of the ego, including organic structure image, which can act upon personality.
Ideal self – the ego a individual would wish to be, including ends and aspirations.
TheA self-conceptA is non needfully consistent with how others view the client, as is the instance in people with low self-prides or conditions such as organic structure dysmorphic upset ( characterised by sensed defects in physical visual aspect ) . Rogers based person-centred reding the premise that all human existences are seeking a positive self-concept ( self-actualisation ) . It is this unconditioned motive towards self-fulfilment that is nurtured during person-centred guidance, with the accent once more being on the clients ain resources.
Roger ‘s has been criticised for holding an overly optimistic position of human existences ( Chantler, 2004 ) , every bit good as concentrating excessively much on a client ‘s ideal ego without sing whether this ideal ego is realistic ( Wilkins, 2003 ) . However, despite this unfavorable judgment, there is strong grounds back uping the efficaciousness of the person-centred attack, including a UK-based meta-analysis of scientific surveies ( Elliot and Freire, 2008 ) . This meta-analysis demonstrated big pre- and post- alterations in curative results that were maintained in the long-run.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy ( CBT ) was founded in the sixtiess by Aaron Beck when he observed that during reding Sessionss, his clients tended to hold an ‘internal duologue ‘ that was frequently negative and self-defeating. Furthermore, this internal duologue was observed to act upon behavior. This led to the hypothesis that altering these internal duologues would take to alterations in behavior. Therefore, CBT focuses on the ideas, images, beliefs and attitudes held by the client and how these associate to the clients behaviour or manner of covering with emotional jobs.
CBT takes a problem-solving attack to guidance, where the client and counselor work collaboratively to understand jobs and to develop schemes for undertaking them. Clients are taught by counselors, through counsel and modeling, a new set of accomplishments that they can use when confronted with a peculiar job. These accomplishments are frequently focused on reframing negative self-talk in an attempt to alter one ‘s reading of the job. An event is non needfully the job, but more so the persons reading of the event.
CBT focuses on the present instead than the past, but does analyze how self-defeating thought forms might hold been formed in early childhood and the impact forms of thought might hold on how the universe is interpreted in the present, as an grownup. These forms of thought can so be challenged by the counselor and altered to suit the present.
Taking a problem-solving attack means that CBT can offer effectual results in comparatively short periods of clip, most frequently 3-6 months. As an illustration, interpersonal psychotherapeutics for eating upsets has been found to take 8-12 hebdomads longer than CBT in order to accomplish comparable results ( Agras et al. , 2000 ) . This is an obvious advantage the CBT attack has over other signifiers of guidance, doing it a popular technique and the prima intervention for some mental wellness issues, such as binge-eating syndrome ( Wilson, Grilo, and Vitousek, 2007 ) . The technique has even been incorporated into wellness intercessions designed to help fleshy and corpulent persons in losing weight ( Wylie-Rosett et al. , 2001 ) and to ease smoke surcease enterprises ( Sussman, Ping, and Dent, 2006 ) .
CBT differs from other reding attacks in that Sessionss have a construction, instead than the individual speaking freely about whatever comes to mind. At the beginning of guidance, the client meets the counselor so that they can collaboratively put curative ends to work towards. These ends so go the footing for be aftering the content of Sessionss every bit good as for delegating ‘homework ‘ between Sessionss. The ground for holding this construction is that it helps to utilize the curative clip expeditiously and ensures that of import information is non overlooked. Homework between Sessionss enables the client to pattern and addition command in new accomplishments with the chance to discourse any jobs encountered in the following session. The counselor takes a more active function at the beginning of reding and as accomplishments are mastered and the client grasps the rules they find helpful, the client is encouraged to take more duty for the content of Sessionss. The purpose is that when the curative relationship comes to an terminal, the client is sufficiently empowered to go on workingA independently.
CBT besides differs from other attacks in the nature of the relationship between counselor and client. Some reding attacks encourage the client to depend on the counselor, as portion of the intervention procedure, in an attempt to construct trust. CBT favours a more equal relationship that is more formal, problem-focused and practical. Such a relationship has been coined by Beck as ‘collaborative empiricist philosophy, ‘ which emphasises the importance of client and counselor working together to prove out how the thoughts behind CBT might use to the client ‘s single fortunes ( Beck, et al. , 1979, Chap. 3 ) .
As demonstrated, patient-centred guidance and CBT are really different attacks to guidance, both in footings of construction and the function of the counselor. In footings of penchant, it could be argued that both are valuable, effectual attacks to reding. Evidence shows that they both work and therefore penchant would be better decided with consideration of the client and their single demands. Whilst person-centred guidance might be preferred for a client with trust issues or who requires extended scrutiny of past injury, CBT might be preferred for person with an immediate job or phobic disorder to work out or person whose jobs are chiefly governed by negative self-talk. Since CBT works with knowledges and behavior and person-centred guidance works more with affect and emotion, their application needs to be based on single context.
Agras, W.S. , et al. , 2000. A multicentre comparing of cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapeutics for binge-eating syndrome nervosa. Archivess of General Psychiatry, 57, pp.459-466.
Beck, A. T. , et al. , ( 1979 ) .A Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
British Association of Counselling & A ; Psychotherapy 2009. Ethical Model for Good Practice in Counselling & A ; Psychotherapy. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bacp.co.uk [ cited 09 January 2010 ] .
Chantler, K. , 2004. Double-edged blade: power and person-centred guidance. In Moodley, R. , Lago, C. , and Talahite, A. eds. Carl Rogers counsels a black client. Herefordshire: PCCS Books.
Coren, A. , 2001. Short- Term Psychotherapy: A Psychodynamic Approach. Palgrave Publishers Ltd.
Elliott, R. and Freire, B. , 2008. Person-Centred Experiential Therapies Are Highly Effective: Summary of the 2008 Meta-analysis. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bapca.co.uk/uploads/files/Meta-Summary091708.doc. [ cited 09 January 2011 ] .
Rogers, Carl.,1951. Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.
Sussman, S. , Sun, P. , and Dent, C. W. , 2006. A meta-analysis of adolescent coffin nail smoke surcease. Health Psychology, 25 ( 5 ) , pp.549-557.
Training and callings in reding and psychotherapeutics ( BACP ) 2009. [ on-line ] . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/811_t1.pdf [ cited 09 January 2011 ] .
Wilkins P.2003 Person-centred therapy in focal point. London: Sage publications
Wilson, G.T. , Grilo, C.M. , and Vitousek, K.M. 2007. Psychological intervention of eating upsets. TheA American Journal of Psychology, 62, pp.199-216.
Wylie-Rosett. , et al. , 2001. Computerized weight loss intercession optimizes staff clip. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 101, pp. 1155-1162.