Ethiopia Analysis Essay

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  • Words: 700
  • Category: Climate

  • Pages: 3

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Relief: Ethiopia consists mainly of Desert and Mountains. Many valleys and

plateau’s also can be found in the country. Due to these landform types the

percentage of farm land is approximately 5.7% of the total amount of land in

Ethiopia. The amount of arable land is 10% of the 5.7% total. Ethiopia has an

area of 1 221 900 sq. km. Ethiopia does not receive any problems such as

volcanism, tidal waves, etc., but it does receive great winds and monsoons. It

is located in Eastern Africa neighboured by Sudan (NW), Kenya(S), and

Somalia(SE). Elevations can be seen on figure 1, and the physical features of

Ethiopia on figure 2.

Climate: The Climate in Ethiopia is of three different climatic zones. These

being the cool or dega zone, consisting of the central parts of the western and

eastern sections of the high plateaus and the area around Harar, with terrains

roughly above 7 900 ft. in elevation. The second zone is the temperate, or

weina dega zone, comprising portions of the high plateau between 4 900 and 7 900

ft.. The final area being the hot or kolla zone, encompassing an area with an

altitude less than 5 000 ft. The cool zones temperatures and precipitation can

be seen on figure 3. The temperate zones temperatures range from 15.6C to 29.4C.

The temperature in the hot zone of the lowlands can reach temperatures as high

as 60C.

There are two distinct seasons in Ethiopia the rainy season, or kremt, lasting

from mid-June to mid-semptember. the other is the Dry season, or bega,

lasting from mid-September to mid-June. In April and May there is slight

transition period. The greatest amount of precipitation is found in the

southwest areas, near gore. They receive approx. 104 in. a year. The littlest

amount of precipitation is found in the Great Rift Valley receiving less than 4

inches per year. the average annual precipitation in the central plateau at 48


The prevailing winds that strike Ethiopia are the Southwesterly monsoon in the

rainy season and the northeasterly wind from the Arabian Desert in the dry


Ethiopia’s climatic conditions suffer severe drought jeopardizing millions with

starvation.These extreme weather changes create horrible growing seasons,

making yields quite unsuccessful.

Vegetation: The percentage of forest land is minimal in Ethiopia, most of the

area is grazed dry farmland, and some generally arable land. Near areas where

beef cattle are being raised tsete flies can be found in great numbers. They

spread a sleeping disease, that in turn wear down farmers, and create less

productivity, and more disease than needed. Another insect that causes severe

problems are locusts. They are considered the plague of Ethiopia, eating,

therefore ruining crops. Due to lack of money Ethiopia does not have sufficient

preservation facilities, and much of there food rots and goes to waste. Rodents

also get into crops and eat whatever is at hand.

Soils: Almost all of Ethiopia’s soils are made up of infertile red and yellow

laterite. Humus and other nutrients are washed out of the soils and into the

rivers. Much land is lost from erosion and desertification, from constant over

grazing and loss of trees.

Wildlife: I couldn’t find any information on Ethiopia’s wildlife, but I would

suspect it is minimal. Small amounts of cattle and ox.


Race: Ethiopia is quite unique for the number of races throughout the country.

These races are shown on figure 4.

Languages: In Ethiopia there are over 70 languages and 200 dialects spoken, but

only eight of the languages are commonly used. Amharic is the official language

of Ethiopia. Tigrinya and Arabic are the official languages of Eritrea. These

are the only three languages with a written script. Due to the number of

languages, many Ethiopians are bilingual and even trilingual. See figure 4.

Religions: Due to all these different religions many problems arise, such as

which religion should be the inferior religion? Around 1931 Emperor Haile

Selassie ruled. When the emperor was overthrown the Ethiopian Orthodox Church

lost its favoured position, along with its lands and most of its property.

Other religions, particularly Western Protestant evangelical organizations, have

found their activities sharply curtailed by the government. this has been

displayed through closure of churches, seizure and nationalization of property

and facilities, and harassment and surveillance. Some religions have assembled

“secret areas” for worship and other practices of there religion. See figure 4.

Population: The population in Ethiopia is extremely high, with a vastly

increasing birthrate. Forms of family planning are not used steadily, if at all.

The population can be seen in figure 5 and

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