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Atomic and Nuclear Physics Vocabulary

Mass defect Difference in mass between the mass of nucleus and mass of separate nucleons Isotopes Isotopes of elements are chemically identical but have different atomic masses Radiative half life The time it takes for the activity to halve Nuclear Binding Energy the energy released when the nuclide is assembled from its individual components Unified […]

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Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Vocabulary

proton the nucleus of the simplest atom- hydrogen. It has a positive charge of +q and a mass of m=1.67×10^-27 kg neutron a particle found in the nucleus that is electrically neutral and that has a mass almost identical to the proton. It was discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick, Its charge is q=0, its […]

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History of Nuclear Physics and Glossary

Anti-Ballistic Missile or National Missile Defense (ABM or NMD) A system with the ability to destroy enemy missiles or their warheads before they hit their targets. This is usually presented as a “defensive” capability, but it is worth noting that this is a counterforce capability Atom A particle of matter indivisible by chemical means. It […]

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Ch 9 Atomic Physics

a. Democritus The ancient Greek who is known for championing the concept of atom was named ______________. a. Democritus b. Socrates c. Plato d. Zeus d. Thomson Who discovered the electron in 1897? a. Dalton b. Bohr c. Rutherford d. Thomson d. Dalton The “billiard ball model” of the atom is associated with _______. a. […]

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GCSE Chemistry Atoms and the atomic structure

Atom All substances are made from particles called atoms Element An element contains only one type of atom 90 elements occur naturally, the rest are man made. Compounds Are substances when two or more different elements are chemically joined together. Mixture Is a substance, when two or more different elements are joined together (NOT CHEMICALLY) […]

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Atomic Structure and Nuclear Equations

What information is gained from knowing an atoms atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus and the number of electrons in a neutral atom How does atomic mass differ from average atomic mass atomic mass is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the atom. Average atomic mass is a […]

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Chapter 21 Atomic Physics

What is blackbody radiation? electromagnetic waves reflected off a blackbody What is a blackbody? object that has absorbed almost all electromagnetic waves What is an example of a blackbody? black hole What is ultraviolet catastrophe? failed prediction of classical physics that the energy radiated by a blackbody at extremely short wavelengths is extremely large and […]

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Unit #1-Atomic Structure

Atomos greek word for atom- means not able to be divided Democritus Greek philosopher who developed an atomistic theory of matter (460-370 BC) atom (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1) elements are composed of atoms. 2) atoms of same element are […]

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Physics atomic structure of matter

Fnet*t=mv-mv0 law of impulse and momentum Vector Impulse V or S Vector Momentum V or S Kgm/s or N*s SI units for Impulse and Momentum Momentum Sum of individual momenta Conserved Total momentum is m1v1+m2v2=m1v1’+m2v2′ Law of elastic collision m1v1+m2v2=v'(m1+m2) Law of inelastic collision m1v1’=m2v2′ Law when both objects have an initial velocity of 0 […]

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atomic structure and nuclear chemistry

democritus all matter is made out of tiny, indivisible particles (atomos). no experimentation, no explanation of chemical behavior. aristotle did not believe in atoms. All matter is continuous, composed of air, water, fire and earth. his;refs weren’t challenged until the age of experimentation in the 18th century. john dalton proposed an atomic theory based on […]

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Physics – Atomic Structure Keywords

Alpha particle Made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons Atomic number The number of protons in an atom Becquerel An emission of one particle per second from an unstable nucleus Beta particle A fast moving electron emitted from the nucleus of an atom Contamination The unwanted presence of radioactive atoms on other materials Electron A […]

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Quantum and Atomic Physics

The Cathode Ray Tube experiment is associated with J.J. Thomson The electron charge was measured the first time in Oil drop experiment What is the difference between cathode rays and X-rays Cathode rays are particles and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation What distinctive phenomena are illustrated in X-ray spectra Bremsstrahlung, internal atomic structure of the anode […]

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Unit 1 – "Atomic Structure"

Atomos greek word for atom- means not able to be divided Democritus Greek philosopher who developed an atomistic theory of matter (460-370 BC) atom (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1) elements are composed of atoms. 2) atoms of same element are […]

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An Introduction to Atomic and Nuclear Physics-WWII-Definitions

absorption spectrum a continuous spectrum interrupted by dark bands obsessed when light passing through a substance is absorbed at specific frequencies alpha decay radioactive decay by emission of an alpha particle alpha particle the nucleus of a helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons, which is emitted during alpha decay antiparticle an antimatter […]

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Nuclear physics iGCSE????

basic structure of an atom? neutron proton electron isotope? atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons most isotopes are: unstable mass number? no of protons and neutrons atomic number? no of protons unstable isotopes cause? radioactivity what is ‘radioactive’? radioactive isotopes decay into other elements, giving out radiation what are […]

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Matter, atomic structure, wavelength, energy etc

Smallest particle of matter that has properties of an element. Cannot be divided or broken by chemical means Atom Smallest particle of a compound, possessing characteristics of the compound. Atoms of various elements may combine to form structures called….. Molecule Two or more substances combined Mixture Any quantity of one type of molecule Compound The […]

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AQA GCSE Physics – Atomic structure

activity the number of unstable atoms that decay per second in a radioactive source alpha radiation (α) alpha particles, each composed of two protons and two neutrons, emitted by unstable nuclei atomic number the number of protons (which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number beta radiation […]

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Nuclear Physics Final Exam Terms

Nuclear Chemistry Defined as the application of procedures and techniques common to chemistry to study the structure of the nucleus and to define the nature of the fundamental particles. Radiochemistry The chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes. Nuclear Physics Field […]

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IGCSE Physics definitions Topic 5 (Atomic Physics)

NUCLEUS The centre of the atom that contains most of the mass of the atom. The nucleus is positively charged. Negative electrons orbit the nucleus NUCLIDE A general word for the nucleus of any element RADIOACTIVITY The spontaneous and random release of energy and particles from unstable nuclei such as Uranium BACKGROUND RADIATION The radiation […]

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GCSE Physics – Topic 4 – Atomic Structure

What was the nuclear model of the atom? 1)The nuclear model that resulted from the alpha particle scattering experiment was a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons 2) Niels Bohr said that the electrons orbiting the nucleus do so at certain distances called energy levels. His theoretical calculations agreed with the […]

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Physics P2: Atomic Structure, Radioactivity, Nuclear Fission & Fusion, Stars

Structure of an atom Nucleus: protons (positively charged) and neutrons (no charge). Overall charge of nucleus is positive. Electrons (negatively charged) are found in electron shells around the nucleus. There is no overall charge of an atom – electrons and protons balance Periodic table: labels of atoms (Which number is atomic mass, which is the […]

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