Test Answers on Neurochemistry Flashcards

Neurochemistry Questions

Neurotransmitter The function of a/an ______ depends on what region it innervates and its receptor Acetylcholine Attention and memory; N.trans. Basal Nucleus Where acetylcholine is made Acetylcholine Sugar + Choline from Lecithin Norepinephrine Arousal/Wake up; N. trans. Norepinephrine Regulates communication between brain and body to control metabolism Locus Coeruleus Where norepinephrine is made Tyrosine Base […]

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Neurochemistry Test Questions

Glutamate and aspartate Most common excitatory transmitters in the brain. Both appear to bind to the same receptors, and almost all study has focused on the actions of glutamate. There are several major classes of glutamate receptors, some of which are metabotropic (modulatory) while three of which are ionotropic, ligand-gated ion channels. Glutamate has one […]

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Intro to Neuroscience: Exam 2 (Neurochemistry)

Understand how it was discovered that chemicals are used for communication between neurons Otto Loewi resolves debate: Question: Do neurons release a chemical to communicate with other cells, or is the communication based on electrical signals? Experiment: Stimulate the vagus nerve to slow the heart. Collect fluid from around the slowed heart and apply the […]

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Chapter 4: Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry Focuses on the basic chemical composition and processes of the nervous system Neuropharmacology The study of compounds that selectively affect the nervous system Frog heart experiment Otto Loewi. Showed the role of the vagus nerve and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in slowing heart rate. Ach was the first neurotransmitter discovered in the CNS and PNS. […]

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Neurochemistry Definitions

Dendrites – Multiple per cell forming arbors, non/spiny; clustered near soma; highly plastic – Organise, respond, synthesise inputs to neuron DNA nucleus contains the DNA (DNA the same in every nucleus).. Chromatin determines cell expression ie. what gene is what Process of DNA –> protein DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA moves to cytoplasm in the […]

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Neurochemistry & Psychopharmacology (Lecture Notes)

acetylcholine synthesis: enzyme + choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholenzyme A+choline+acetyltransferases breakdown: acetylcholinesterase breaks it back down receptors: nicotinic receptors – bound by nicotine, found in brain and muscle cells muscarinic receptors – bound by muscarine neurochemicals neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neuro-hormones, neuromodulators neurotransmitters chemical signals that are used to talk from one neuron to (commonly) another neuron neuropeptides short […]

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EXAM 3: Neurochemistry

Increased release induces epilepsy aspartate & glutamate Classified as an excitatory neurotransmitter aspartate & glutamate Classified as an inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA & glycine Classified as a peptide neurotransmitter endorphins & substance P Classified as a catecholamine (NOT acetylcholine!) dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine Made primarily in the brainstem substantial nigra dopamine Made by motor neurons acetylcholine […]

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Test Answers on Neurochemistry Terms

what is neuroplasticity the brain’s ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between dendrites; changes in the spine/thorn morphology of the dendrites are associated with learning and memory. What is the function of the hypothallamus? Responsible for regulating basic biological needs: hunger, thirst, temperature control what is the function of the cerebrum? aka the […]

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Neurochemistry Concepts

what are the three protective features of the brain? the blood brain barrier, the bony skull, and the cerebral spinal fluid, which provides cushioning for the brain what is an example of a leak channel potassium leak channels, which allow potassium out of the cell with the concentration gradient and help maintain the membrane potential […]

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(3) (a) Explanations For Nicotine Addiction: Brain

AO1 Desensitisation hypothesis- Role of nAChRs; Desensitisation; Effect of dopamine Nicotine regulation model- Resensitisation of neurons leads to upregulation, Upregulation leads to withdrawal syndrome, Chronic desensitisation increases tolerance. Desensitisation hypothesis 1. Role of nAChRs- dopamine-producing neurons have acetylcholine receptors that also respond to nicotine. 2. Desensitisation- when nicotine binds to a nAChR… a) neuron is […]

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Neurochemical Transmission

Parts of the standard neuron Inputs, dendrites, soma, myelinated axon, nodes, terminal, synapse Where are the neurotransmitters held? In the synaptic terminal What is exocytosis dependent on and why? Ca2+ concentration – calcium ions cause vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane Mechanism of exocytosis Vesicles dock with specialized proteins attached to the inner surface […]

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drugs alter brain neurochemistry

psychoactive drugs mind-altering substances that people typically take for recreational purposes and change the brain’s neurochemistry either by mimicking neurotransmitters or changing the activity of a neurotransmitter system it imitates or activates stimulants drugs that increase behavioral and mental activity stimulate central nervous system activate sympathetic nervous system(heart rate) activate dopeamine receptors ether by blocking […]

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Neurochemistry Terms

categories of neurochemicals -neurotransmitter (released by neurons) -neuromodulator (released by neurons) -neuropeptide (released by neurons) -neurohormone (released by neurons) -hormone Ionotropic transmitter-gated ion channels metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors -2nd messenger system termination of nt effect -reuptake -enzymatic deactivation -diffusion (rarely) ACh -acetylcholine -primary NT secreted by output CNS cells -pons: arousal -hippocampus: learning and memory […]

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Neurochemistry Cards

ACh NT for Neurons connected to voluntary muscle contraction Heart beat Attention, sleep, memory, mood Basal Nucleus of Meynert Many cell bodies producing ACh Parkinson’s Disease with decrease in ACh releasing neurons GABA Amino acid inhibits neuron firing Benzodiazepines anticonvulsants Increase GABA activity Huntington’s disease GABA pathology Glutamate AA Excitatory signals Affected: ketamine, EtOH, PCP […]

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Neurobiology: Neurochemistry Answers

NT (compared to hormone) shorter distance, latency, duration more focal *small molecules* classical NT amino acids glutamate (GABA) gamma-aminobutyric acid glycine amines modified AA acetylcholine biogenic: (catecholamine) DA, NE, EPI 5-HT, histamine *large molecules* peptides strings of AA, [smallest] in brain opioids: analgesic; internal heroin beta-endorphin, leu-enkephalin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin substance P, oxytocin, vasopressin, neuropeptide Y, […]

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Clinical Neurochemistry

What is a receptor? Protein molecule; Located in plasma membrane; Produces a change when ligand binds to it Distinguish between receptors and acceptors. Receptor: both binding and signal generation; Accepter: no biological impulse is generated Ligand examples include: Peptides, neurotransmitter, hormones, drugs, toxins How have receptors been studied? Historically: dissect animals, add agonist/antagonist and watch […]

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Neurochemistry Practice

Which of the following processes is dependent on sodium ions for activity? a. GABA-transaminase activity. b. Glutamine synthase. c. Dopamine synthesis from tyrosine. d. Norepinephrine reuptake transporter. e. All of the above. d. Norepinephrine reuptake transporter. Which of the following is a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of a neurotransmitter? a. Tyrosine hydroxylase. b. Tryotophan […]

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Psych455 Neurochemistry

neurochemistry focuses on the basic chemical composition and processes of the nervous system neuropharmacology the study of compounds that selectively affect the nervous system Frog Heart Experiment Otto Loewi (1921), role of the vagus nerve and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) in slowing heart rate Acetylcholine first neurotransmitter discovered in the PNS and CNS activates skeletal […]

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Neurotransmitters and Neurochemistry

What are the criteria needed to be a NT? 1. Present in presynaptic axon terminals 2. Synthesized by enzymes in neuron 3. Released in significant quantities when AP reaches terminal 4. Specific receptors on postsynaptic neuron recognize the substance 5. Postsynaptic cell can be changed by experimental application of substance 6. Blocking release of substance […]

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Chapter 2: Neurochemistry & Physiology of Addiction – Uppers, Downers, All Arounders

What is pharmacokinetics? The process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, eliminated, & excreted by the body What are the key factors in pharmacokinetics? 1) route of administration 2) speed of transit to the brain 3) rate of metabolism 4) process of elimination 5) affinity for nerve cells & neurotransmitters What makes a […]

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Neurochemistry – Intracellular Signalling

Where do cells receive signals? Environment beyond the membrane Name the types of receptors 1. GCPR: epnephrin receptor 2. Enzyme-linked receptors: insulin 3. Ligan-gated ion channels: nicotinic ACh receptor 4. nuclear receptors: steroids 5. other: integrin receptors what are typical ligands? – small ions: ferric ions – organic molecules: adrenalin – polysaccharides – peptides: insulin […]

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