Standardized and norm Reference test
Each and every one of us can learn different things in life whether from a formal or non formal sources. Among the many foundations which can provide us education is the school. From our childhood up to our adulthood, these institutions are well known to give us learning about the various facet of living that we can use in establishing our life. These foundations use multiple ways in giving us education and among those methods is the test. Examination is done with an aim to evaluate learners moreover it exists in diverse forms; however it is categorized into two different groups namely the norm reference and criterion reference test.
What is the difference between the two and its impact to the academic learning is the one being discussed further. The two classifications differ in many ways such us their intended use, content of the test and the process in determining the result or the scoring process. On the other hand, both are widely use by learning organization like schools. Although they are both used in order to assess learning, the two strategies still differ in some areas. “The major reason for using a norm-referenced test (NRT) is to classify students. ” (Bond, 1996).
It is use to rank students in respect to the achievement of others to the class; therefore it is design to discriminate low achievers from high achievers. It covers broad skill areas from a variety of sources like textbooks and syllabi, in this way it help the teachers to select students ability for different subjects. While the norm reference test is about ranking students’ criterion reference test is on how much the learners know. “CRTs report how well students are doing relative to a pre-determined performance level on a specified set of educational goals or outcomes included in the school, district, or state curriculum”(Bond, 1996).
Test takers are not being compared to others but on how they learn about a specific field, which is being identified by the school personnel like the teachers and curriculum experts, therefore covered skills within the curriculum. Parallel to this, the content is an important factor to distinguish which type of test is appropriate to use. “The content of a Norm reference Test is selected according to how well it ranks students from high achievers to low. The content of a Criterion Reference Test is determined by how well it matches the learning outcomes deemed most important” (Bond, 1996).
The content depends on what it is suppose to develop among the test takers or to the students. The norm is based on the curriculum while the criterion is base on how well it discriminates among learners. In connection to this, the score interpretation is also different for the two types. In norm reference test, there is a score or a grade equivalent in compare to the large group of examiners, the score is reported on broad skills, therefore the results can be use in determining who will need remedial assistance.
On the other hand, “CRTs give detailed information about how well a student has performed on each of the educational goals or outcomes included on that test” (Bond, 1996). Each individual is compared to a preset standard and the performance of the other examinees will not affect the results. The score is expressed on percentage and assess individual skills. Norm reference is more on subjective type of evaluation, and can be made by classroom teachers, whereas criterion is on the objective type of assessing individuals and furthermore it is done by experts.
However the criteria of these two type of test will serve to matched the demands of educational objectives on what it is supposed to measured to learners. In line with this, test truly covers to measure wide area of learning and for this reason, the academic achievements of individual as well as their language proficiency will depend on these various kinds of test they are taking, therefore these two methods of assessment have an impact to these aspect in education of learners. The test covers the comprehension skill of a person.
How they interpret the lesson and information given to them and transfer it from others with out altering the meaning. Their construction of words to explain and elaborate an idea is also practiced from the test given to them. It’s imperative that the schools or any institution official that construct any type of test will see to it that they cover this element. Exams that require only to supply one word answer or a traditional multiple choice failed to achieved this kind of goal because it only leads for the students to guessing the answers or do a purely memorization without understanding the thought.
Test that requires for the student to analyze and reconstruction of ideas will more likely to develop high level of learning because these type of test involved them in critical thinking. In addition to this, vocabulary and grammatical construction of learners is also practiced with this type of test. In lieu of these two categories of exam, we could utter that both have some sub-classifications which attain this objective. Choosing which of the two is appropriate to use can sometimes gives difficulty, in link to these there are guidelines provided by some experts regarding these matter. These criteria are whether the assessment strategy(ies) of a particular test matches the state’s educational goals, addresses the content the state wishes to assess, and allows the kinds of interpretations state education officials wish to make about student performance. Once they have determined these three things, the task of choosing between the NRT and CRT will become easier” (Bond, 1996). Some innovation with the content of the test is given priority in order to meet the demand of academic achievements.
Tests are made to hit the target outcomes and in order to trained individual for their preparation in the future. Tests are one training instrument and a foundation for an individual to practice, discover and enhance their ability; therefore it is essential to give importance with this area of assessing student. God made every person unique, and different test are made for this reason. To be able to see the students’ progress and learning is truly an important aspect done by these tests.
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