————————————————- What is an ideal management control system Management control is a process of assuming that resources are obtained and used effectively and efficiently in the accomplishment of the organization’s objectives. It is a fundamental necessity for the success of a business and hence from time to time the current performance of the various operations is compared to a predetermined standard or ideal performance and in case of variance remedial measures are adopted to confirm operations to set plan or policy. * Features of management control system Total System: MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM is an overall process of the enterprise which aims to fit together the separate plans for various segments as to assure that each harmonizes with the others and that the aggregate effect of all of them on the whole enterprise is satisfactory. * Monetary Standard: MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM is built around a financial structure and all the resources and outputs are expressed in terms of money. The results of each responsibility centre in respect to production and resources are expressed in terms of a common denominator of money. Definite pattern: It follows a definite pattern and time table. The whole operational activity is regular and rhythmic. It is a continuous process even if the plans are changed in the light of experience or technology. * Coordinated System: It is a fully coordinated and integrated system. * Emphasis: Management control requires emphasis both on the search for planning as well as control. Both should go hand in hand to achieve the best results. * Function of every manager: Manager at...
every level as to focus towards uture operational and accounting data, taking into consideration past performance, present trends and anticipated economic and technological changes. The nature, scope and level of control will be governed by the level of manager exercising it. * Existence of goals and plans: MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM is not possible without predetermined goals and plans. These two provide a link between such future anticipations and actual performance. * Forward looking: MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM is on the basis of evaluation of past performance that the future plans or guidelines can be laid down.
Management Control involves managing the overall activity of the enterprise for the future. It prevents deviations in operational goals. * Continuous process: It is a continuous process over the human and material resources. It demands vigilance at every step. Deciding, planning and regulating the activities of people associated in the common task of attaining the objectives of the organization is a the primary aim of MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM. * People oriented: It is the managers, engineers and operators which implement the ideas and objectives of the management.
The coordination of the main division of an organization helps in smoother operations and less friction which results in the achievement of the predetermined objectives. * Scope of control MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM is an important process in which accounting information is used to accomplish the organizations objectives. Therefore the scope of control is very wide which covers a very wide range of management activities. * Policies control: Success if a business depends on formulation of sound policies and their
proper implementation. Control over organization: It involves designing and organizing the various departments for the smooth running of the business. It attempts to remove the causes of such friction and rationalizes the organizational structure as and when the need arises. * Control over personnel: Anything that the business accomplishes is the result of the action of those people who work in the organization. It is the people, and not the figures, that get things done. * Control over costs: The cost accountant is responsible to control cost sets, cost standards, labour material and over heads.
He makes comparisons of actual cost data with standard cost. Cost control is a delicate task and is supplemented by budgetary control systems. * Control over techniques: It involves the use of best methods and techniques so as to eliminate all wastages in time, energy and material. The task is accomplished by periodic analysis and checking of activities of each department with a view to avoid an eliminate all non-essential motions, functions and methods. * Control over capital Expenditure: Capital budget is prepared for the whole concern. Every project is evaluated in terms if the advantage it accrues to the firm.
For this purpose capital budgeting, project analysis, study of cost of capital etc are carried out. * Overall control: A master plan is prepared for overall control and all the departments of the concern are involved in this procedure. ————————————————- What is the concept of free cash flow as applied to organization? Explain the process of computation. We define net cash flow as net income plus non cash adjustment which typically means net income plus depreciation though that cash flows cannot be maintained over time unless depreciated fixed assets are replaced.
So management is not completely free to use its cash flows however it chooses. Therefore we define the term free cash flows. Free cash flow is the cash flow actually available for distribution to investor after the company has made all the investment in fixed assets and working capital necessary to sustain ongoing operation. When we studied income statement in accounting the emphasis was probably on the firm’s net income, which is accounting profit. However the value of company’s operation is determined by the stream of cash flows that the operations will generate now and in the future.
To be more specific, the value of operation depends on all the future expected free cash flows, defined as after- tax operating profit minus the amount of new investment in working capital and fixed assets necessary to sustain the business. Therefore the way for managers to make their companies more valuable is to increase their free cash flow. * Uses of FCF: 1. Pay interest to debt holders, keeping in mind that the net cost to the company is the after tax interest expense. 2. Repay debt holders, that is, pay off some of debt. 3. Pay dividends to shareholders. 4.
Repurchase stock from shareholders. 5. Buy marketable securities or other non operating assets. In practice, most companies combine these five uses in such a way that the net total is equal to FCF. For example, a company might pay