Home Remedies for Cough and Cold Essay

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The common cold is the most common human disease globally affected both men and women. Not to mention that in the Philippines there were clinical studies and evidences that number of incidences was increasing not just in big cities but also in rural and far flung areas. In such, as student researcher I would like to personally identify my own basic home remedy just to alleviate crisis brought by this most common diseases- Cough and Cold. Adults typically have two to five infections annually and children may have six to ten colds a year (and up to twelve colds a year for school children).

Rates of symptomatic infections increase in the elderly due to a worsening immune system. In this paper I would like to review the signs and symptoms, causes, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, management for cough and cold. Signs and symptoms The typical symptoms of a cold include cough, runny nose, nasal congestion and a sore throat, sometimes accompanied by muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite. A sore throat is present in about 40% of the cases and a cough in about 50%, while muscle ache occurs in about half. In adults, a fever is generally not present but it is common in infants and young children.

The cough is usually mild compared to that accompanying influenza. While a cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of influenza in adults, a great deal of similarity exists between these two conditions. A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections. The color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not predict the class of agent causing the infection. Causes of cough and cold: Viruses The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract.

The most commonly implicated virus is a rhinovirus (30–80%), a type of picornavirus with 99 known serotypes. Others include: coronavirus (10–15%), influenza viruses, human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and metapneumovirus. Frequently more than one virus is present. In total over 200 different viral types are associated with colds. Transmission The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects).

Which of these routes is of primary importance has not been determined, however hand-to-hand and hand-to-surface-to-hand contact seems of more importance than transmission via aerosols. The viruses may survive for prolonged periods in the environment (over 18 hours for rhinoviruses) and can be picked up by people’s hands and subsequently carried to their eyes or nose where infection occurs. Transmission is common in daycare and at school due to the proximity of many children with little immunity and frequently poor hygiene.

These infections are then brought home to other members of the family. There is no evidence that recirculated air during commercial flight is a method of transmission. However, people sitting in proximity appear at greater risk. Rhinovirus-caused colds are most infectious during the first three days of symptoms; they are much less infectious afterwards. Weather The traditional folk theory is that a cold can be “caught” by prolonged exposure to cold weather such as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name.

While colds are caused by viruses and not cold temperatures, there is some controversy over the role of body cooling as a risk factor for the common cold; the majority of the evidence suggests that it may result in greater susceptibility to infection. This may occur due to cold induced changes in the respiratory system decreased immune response and low humidity increasing viral transmission rates, perhaps due to dry air allowing small viral droplets to disperse farther and stay in the air longer. Additionally some of the viruses that cause the common colds are seasonal, occurring more frequently during cold or wet weather.

This maybe due to people spending more time indoors, near an infected person: specifically children at school. Pathophysiology The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract. The symptoms of the common cold are believed to be primarily related to the immune response to the virus. The mechanism of this immune response is virus specific. For example, the rhinovirus is typically acquired by direct contact; it binds to human ICAM-1 receptors through unknown mechanisms to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators These inflammatory mediators then produce the symptoms.

It does not generally cause damage to the nasal epithelium. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on the other hand is contracted by both direct contact and airborne droplets. It then replicates in the nose and throat before frequently spreading to the lower respiratory tract RSV does cause epithelium damage. Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and bronchi In young children when it affects the trachea it may produce the symptoms of croup due to the small size of their airway. Diagnosis

The distinction between different viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms with the common cold affecting primarily the nose, pharyngitis the throat, and bronchitis the lungs. There however can be significant overlap and multiple areas can be affected. The common cold is frequently defined as nasal inflammation with varying amount of throat inflammation. Self-diagnosis is frequent. Isolation of the actual viral agent involved is rarely performed, and it is generally not possible to identify the virus type through symptoms. Prevention

The only possibly useful ways to reduce the spread of cold viruses are physical measures such as hand washing and face masks; in the healthcare environment, gowns and disposable gloves are also used. Isoaltion, e. g. quarantine, is not possible as the disease is so widespread and symptoms are non-specific. Vaccination has proved difficult as there are so many viruses involved and they mutate rapidly. Creation of a broadly effective vaccine is thus highly improbable. Regular hand washing appears to be effective in reducing the transmission of cold viruses, especially among children.

Whether the addition of antivirals or antibacterials to normal hand washing provides greater benefit is unknown. Wearing face masks when around people who are infected may be beneficial; however, there is insufficient evidence for maintaining a greater social distance. Zinc supplements may help to reduce the prevalence of colds. Routine vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk or severity of the common cold, though it may reduce its duration. Management for cough and cold: There are currently no medications or herbal remedies which have been conclusively demonstrated to shorten the duration of infection.

Treatment thus comprises symptomatic relief. Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, and gargling with warm salt water, are reasonable conservative measures. Much of the benefit from treatment is however attributed to the placebo effect. Symptomatic Treatments that help alleviate symptoms include simple analgesics and antipyretics such as ibuprofen[42] and acetaminophen/paracetamol. Evidence does not show that cough medicines are any more effective than simple analgesics and they are not recommended for use in children due to a lack of evidence supporting effectiveness and the potential for harm.

In 2009, Canada restricted the use of over-the-counter cough and cold medication in children six years and under due to concerns regarding risks and unproven benefits. In adults there is insufficient evidence to support the use of cough medications. The misuse of dextromethorphan (an over-the-counter cough medicine) has led to its ban in a number of countries. In adults the symptoms of a runny nose can be reduced by first-generation antihistamines; however, these sometimes have adverse effects such as drowsiness. Other decongestants such as pseudoephedrine are also effective in adults.

Ipratropium nasal spray may reduce the symptoms of a runny nose but has little effect on stuffiness. Second-generation antihistamines however do not appear to be effective. Antibiotics and antivirals Antibiotics have no effect against viral infections and thus have no effect against the viruses that cause the common cold Due to their side effects they cause overall harm; however, they are still frequently prescribed. Some of the reasons that antibiotics are so commonly prescribed include: people’s expectations for them, physicians’ desire to do something, and the difficulty in excluding complications that may be amenable to antibiotics.

There are no effective antiviral drugs for the common cold even though some preliminary research has shown benefit. Alternative treatments While there are many alternative treatments used for the common cold, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the use of most. As of 2010 there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against either honey or nasal irrigation. Studies suggested that zinc, if taken within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy people.

Due to wide differences between the studies, further research may be needed to determine how and when zinc may be effective Whereas the zinc lozenges may produce side effects, there is only a weak rationale for physicians to recommend zinc for the treatment of the common cold. Vitamin C’s effect on the common cold, while extensively researched, is disappointing, except in limited circumstances: specifically, individuals exercising vigorously in cold environments. Evidence about the usefulness of echinacea is inconsistent. Different types of echinacea supplements may vary in their effectiveness.

It is unknown if garlic is effective. A single trial of vitamin D did not find benefit. What I know about my topic? Cough is one of the top five reasons why patients seek medical attention. There is no clinical evidence that over-the-counter cough expectorants or suppressants actually relieve it. A nonprescription cough remedy does little more than offer comfort to desperate patients. Cough can also be due a serious illness such as heart failure or serious lung infection such as tuberculosis. Colds and flu are the most common causes for short term symptoms.

Chronic coughing is defined as one that lasts longer than 4 weeks. This can have several causes such as postnasal drip, pneumonia, bronchitis, cigarette smoking, acid reflux, heart disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and medications such as ACE inhibitors used for treating high blood pressure. With heartburn, it may be from acid reflux – acid that backs up into your throat. Asthma also can cause chronic cough. Allergy can cause chronic cough, also, mostly due to postnasal drip – mucus from your nose or sinuses that builds up in your throat.

Cough and cold are common health problems which attack everybody with the changes in weather. However, if we follow simple home remedies we can prevent or get rid of cold and cough immediately. A good home remedy is safe, inexpensive, and as beneficial as over-the-counter medicines. They are also found in nearly every home. And it is not advisable to depend on allopathic everytime as side-effects to those medicines cannot be neglected. Instead, try some home remedies that are good and quick enough to cure it and there are no side effects to these remedies.

Increase water intake from 8-10 glasses for day, increase consume of fruits to rich in vitamin c it is the most effective natural remedies in treating a cold because it increases the production of white blood cells, and can also help prevent the multiplication of viruses while reducing mucus and inflammation in the nasal passageways. You can take vitamin C in a pill form, but other foods that are surprisingly packed full of vitamin C include oranges, cauliflower, lemons, broccoli, strawberries, cabbage, peaches, kiwi, tomato and parsley.

Many of us already know, the key curing any type of cold is to drink lots of fluids. Of course this can come in the form of water juice, but tea is a hot liquid that can help prevent the drying of our throat and nose. Drinking tea is also another popular, natural home remedy for treating flus because it can help prevent dehydration as well. Garlic contains antiseptic properties that could help protect the immune system against the common cold, and scientific studies have shown that the allocine contained in garlic can also act as a stimulator of white blood cells.

The oil in the garlic also helps open up the respiratory passages, and if taken in soup form it can help flush out all toxins in our system and also bring down a fever as well. Boil three to six cloves of chopped garlic in a cup of water and have your drink the liquid in a soup form and drink it two to three times a day. Gargle with warm salt water may be daunting task, but it can actually help remove any bacteria from our mouth and throat. For cold, steam inhalation with vicks, Take few pieces of ginger and boil it with you normal tea. Eat spoonful of honey each day. Honey will act as syrup for curing cough and cold.

It will give you best results as compared to any other cough and cold syrup, and If you are coping with cough and cold, avoid eating oily food stuff as much as you can. Oily food can increase cough and cold infection and make it difficult to cope with cough and cold. You should avoid eating oily food in general as well. Oily food is one of the main causes for health disorders. What I want to know about my topic? I want to research more on specific intervention, procedure about treatment of cough and cold based on home remedy. I would like to identify more herbal medicine commonly seen in our own houses or home.

These are the following 6 steps how to stop coughing using how and natural remedies. 1. Humidify the air. Dry air is quite irritating to the throat and can aggravate a cough further. This is especially true when you are suffering from the common cold or flu. Use a humidifier in your bedroom or living room to add moisture to the air. 2. Drink Water. This is obvious but many people drink the entire glass all at once instead of taking sips of it constantly. It will help to keep your throat moist and clear out any irritant in the throat. 3. Try Honey and Lemon. Add some lemon slices into a cup of tea along with one or two tablespoon of honey.

4. Try Honey and Milk. Add two tablespoon of honey into a glass of warm milk and drink it just before bedtime. This is a great way to stop coughing at night. 5. Use Peppermint Mints. Carry with you some peppermint mints so that you can chew on them when you suddenly feel the urge to cough. This is great when you have to give a speech or make a presentation. 6. Try a mentholated chest rub. The vapour released helps to stop the urge to cough. It is great for cough caused by the common cold or the flu. The Story of My Search Thought it was a bad cold. Had a sore throat for a few days like I was catching a cold and dry cough.

Finally felt crummy enough to school Tuesday afternoon and could not get up Wednesday or Thursday for the runny nose, headache, nasal drip (I’m currently on my second box of Kleenex) and intense coughing. Now I’ve got pressure in my chest and plan to see the doctor today to be sure it hasn’t gotten into the lungs. That’s what it feels like. This is Friday so it has been 3 intense days so far – ibuprofen, sudafed, robitussin, all of my usual tools don’t have much impact. The sweating and chills continue to be intermittent and indicate to me this is more than just a garden variety upper respiratory infection.

I find that having a hot shower, then a mug of hot green tea with lemon and honey, then rubbing my feet with Vick’s Vapo-Rub then putting on my socks and instantly going to sleep works wonders for a cough, clogged throat, or cold. I increase consume of fruits to rich in vitamin c it is the most effective natural remedies in treating a cold because it increases the production of white blood cells, and can also help prevent the multiplication of viruses while reducing mucus and inflammation in the nasal passageways. You can take vitamin C in a pill form, but other foods that are surprisingly packed full of vitamin C include oranges and lemons.

Next morning you will feel that cough and cold was not there at all. The Result of My Search A home remedy is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, vegetables, or other common items. Home remedies may or may not have. We spend billions every year on over-the-counter health remedies for cough and cold, but in some cases there’s no need to shell out a lot of money to find relief. All you need to do is check your cupboards for some surprising home remedies. I enhance my knowledge especially in making own home remedies.

The home remedies are most effective than medicines because they are herbal or natural medicines and inexpensive and no side effects while the medicine is expensive and has side effects. My growth as a Researcher Most of the information that I found supported my original answer. I improved my researching skills during my research. I did not experience any fustratioins or celebrations in my research. I might conduct my research differently in the futur by going on wikipedia and not on infotrack. Some changes that might improve my research in the future could be to choose a different topic.

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