Compare And Contrast Essay
Researching the Bible in order to help someone with their problems has been around for centuries. Biblical counseling is a practical and effective way to teach through the understanding of Scripture; that thoughts, attitudes, motives, and words flow from a sinful nature of a selfish heart. In counseling, whether Biblical or secular, the main objective should be to help the counselee with the issues they are dealing with. Focusing on keeping the truth in the forefront of the counselee’s mind and always helping them through the hard times is a very important rule of thumb when counseling.
When a counselee has an understanding of Biblical Scripture, the best way to efficiently resolve his or her emotional or social issues is through the use of effective biblical counseling, the foundational method of life. As Lawrence Crabb states in Effective Biblical Counseling, the goal of being an effective Christian counselor is to direct the counselee not in the direction of happiness, but in the path of becoming more like Christ. Crabb (1977) stated, “I must firmly and consciously by an act of my will reject the goal of becoming happy and adopt the goal of becoming more like the Lord. ” (Crabb, 20).
Although biblical counseling is now a routine form of therapy, the model of Lawrence Crabb, a foundational scholar in the area, resembles the techniques and theories of other authors while still maintaining its varied perspective. Goal of Christian Counseling What is the goal of Christian counseling? According to Lawerence Crabb (1977), there are four different approaches Christian counselors utilize to approach integration (p. 33). These approaches include; separate but equal, tossed salad, nothing buttery and spoiling the Egyptians. Crabb stresses that primary issue with people is their need for a deep sense of self-worth (Crabb, 1977, p. 62).
In doing this the result will be a growing relationship with Christ that will evolve into a deeper fellowship. Happiness is a human emotion and many people have the desire to be happy; however, the goal should not be striving for happiness but should be to serve God and to please Him. (Crabb, 21). In Linda Andrew’s article Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy we see the therapist assigns homework; this includes keeping a journal of thoughts and actions or an activity that causes one to have to participate in group activities (Andrew, p. 112).
This is also true for Christian counseling; assigning homework and teaching how important journaling is with God are two major assignments within Christian counseling. In Christian counseling the reaffirmation in being able to solve our problems this should increase one’s interaction with the Lord. In this process it should never drive the counselee away from the gospel; however, this should give them the strength they need to worship God and serve Him more effectively. (Crabb, 22). According to Andrews (), the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or CBT that she presented in the article has a huge contrast to Christian counseling also.
CBT counselors often revert to medications as a solution to problems dealing with depression, anxiety, and etc. (Andrews, p. 112). Christian counseling for example looks away from using medications as a means to a solution, and focuses primarily on the counselee’s relationship with Christ. In Dennis Kensits Rogerian Theory where the therapist is called to hold unconditional positive regard and genuineness for the client is also a very important theory in effective biblical counseling. To gain the client/counselee trust and respect is the only way that a counselor can move forward in gaining and open and positive environment.
The Roger Client-Centered Therapy or RCCT as it is commonly referred to; teach that the client’s inappropriate social behaviors are solvable on their own and no other person can correct this behavior. During this the therapist must remain non-directive and supportive and allow the individual to make all the decisions. In Crabb’s defense this view is contrary to the Rogerian theory in the understanding that the counselee is responding to the gospel and responds obediently to whatever circumstance they are experiencing. (Crabb, 25).
The third author Patrick DeLeon wrote Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and in this article he reviewed Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), and Ellis makes the statement that religion is scientifically unsupportable. (Deleon,). After Research and clinical application of the orientation Ellis would later change his view of religious beliefs and he stated, “He has encouraged the use of Biblical examples and theological concepts if these prove helpful to clients. He now acknowledges that even devout religious commitment may be helpful for many clients.”
This is very consistent to Crabb’s goal of effective Christian counseling and what the gospel can and will do in a person’s life. Both Crabb and Ellis concur that if a counselor is going to counsel religiously they should possess a worldview and religious belief between themselves and their clients. (Deleon). Crabb’s Basic Concepts for Biblical Counseling In Crabb’s understanding of basic concepts for Christian counseling it is presupposed that the counselor look at psychology through the microscope of Scripture, and thus give the counselor the foundation to help, encourage, and motive the counselee to a Christ centered life.
What does the counselor need to know about the counselee in order to help their needs? Crabb (1977) suggests that men for the primary sense of worth are significance and for women the most important route is security. Self-worth is a need for every human being, and people want to feel this want for acceptance. However Scripture tells us that we should put others interest ahead of our own; “do not merely look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others” (Philippians 2:4).
As Crabb (1977) suggest in his personality model people are motivated to meet their need for significance and security in a very unconscious way. It is imperative to see humans in two different forms the physical and the personal. In the personal function there is the conscious mind and the unconscious mind. In the conscious mind this is how people perceive emotional and behavioral events in a person’s life (Crabb, 1977, p. 89). In Ellis’s model of REBT there is a commonality from that to what Crabb (1977) is suggesting being the basic fundamentals for Christian counseling.
Ellis’s model suggests, a religiously accommodated version of REBT would intentionally utilize the client’s own religious beliefs to both alleviate distress and strengthen faith. This is very close to the point Crabb (1977) is making with his heart model in that a person is to lose themselves in Christ. “I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me,” and believing this in our heart will ultimately strengthen our faith.
In Ellis’ earlier view of REBT being strictly a psychotherapy system utilized in helping individuals in a very humanistic way. Ellis () was very anti-religious based on his earlier findings; however, his views changed drastically and he accepted that some religious dogmas and beliefs contribute the mental health of clients. In the CBT form of psychotherapy Andrews (2010) basic foundation is built on the premise that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses are learned. Andrews (2010) also teaches that these responses can be unlearned and replaced with more of a desirable fit.
Crabb (1977) alludes to the fact that what happens to a person will reflect how they perceive and respond, and thus will have a huge impact on their emotional and behavioral reaction (Crabb, 1977, p. 89). Understanding how Crabb’s theory that people basically have to do more unlearning and trusting in Christ than learning a more desirable fit and make that work. In Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy model he contrasts Crabb’s theory on assumption is based upon the outcome being dependent upon the therapist to produce a successful and positive outcome (Kensit, 2000, p. 345).
Crabb (1977) shows that the counselor plays a very effective role in the clients life; however, in the relationship that is built this is explicitly built on the fundamentals of accepting the love and grace of God. The need for acceptance and to feel significant will rest totally in the understanding of who they are in Christ. Understanding that acceptability has already been bought with a price and by that our accountability rests solely on the love for the One who died for world (Crabb, 1977, p. 71).
Crabb’s Basic Strategy for Biblical Counseling The need for security and significance is a personal purpose for one to feel that they are loved and have a basis of self-worth. Furthermore, Crabb (1977) goes to say that when a person realizes how significant they are in Christ this becomes a life changing experience. They become more alive and open to the fact that through the gospel their life is changing in such a way that through truth and obedience they realize what life is all about (Crabb, 1977, p. 114).
The client then understands that their need for acceptance and security is not based on what others can give or even what they can accomplish through all of their good works, but rests solely on the foundation of Jesus Christ and having faith in Him. People are motivated by their basic needs of survival starting with what encourages them and having a goal to accomplish that. Understanding how problems develop is what Crabb (1977) works to show and without being able to focus the client on the root of their problem then basically what you have is just a warm conversation full of good intentions (Crabb, 1977, p. 113).
In Rogers’ model this is the immediate reaction of the client being the focus, and allowing them to feel good about themselves and the counselor to encourage this. With this there is no correction by the counselor in the life of the client, and in turn the client takes no responsibility for their actions. There is no growth or development when looking at this model compared to Crabb’s model. Without the counselor being able to address the primary issues the view here opposed to Crabb’s model is very ineffective and can actually hurt the client in the end.
The therapist in Roger’s model does do a good job at listening and paying attention which is very key in Crabb’s theory and this can be seen as a similarity of the two. The cognitive-behavioral therapy concludes that change in the patterns of thoughts and behaviors are the main cause in behavior change. This is found to be true in Crabb’s model also; however, there is a very selective process of how this works. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is not a single approach and encompasses numerous different therapies to work effectively cognitively and behaviorally, and we how Crabb (1977) uses many different models to show different therapies too.
This relatively fast progress is due to the use of action-oriented techniques that put a premium on changing thoughts and behaviors, but Crabb (1977) teaches that the heart has to be changed in order for true acceptance in Christ not just thoughts and behaviors. In the REBT model we see the basic strategy here as psychologists they respect the client religious and spiritual beliefs and values. The therapist should have a basic understanding of religious cultures and doctrines that can enable them to the proper counseling.
In Crabb’s (1977) model of Christian counseling the center of Biblical counseling teach that Christ is the center for living. Ellis and Crabb have a very distinct similarity in the basic strategy in the fact that Ellis’ model says, “the therapist may suggest that they will improve once they begin challenging the Biblical truthfulness or accuracy of some of the things they have been telling themselves, and that is also held true with Crabb (1977) (Ellis, Developing a Counseling Program in the Local Church
“It [REBT] hypothesizes that devout faith in supra human entities and powers always leads to poor emotional health and to decreased long-range happiness” (Ellis, 1980, p. 327). rational emotive philosophy and the Christian philosophy of grace. Albert Ellis and the essential A-B-C-D-E model of human disturbance and psychotherapy “clinical pragmatism” and “humanistic idealism,” two of the dominant values in rational–emotive philosophy.
“Pragmatic and humanistic views manifest a relative indifference to God, the relationship of human beings to God, and the possibility that spiritual factors influence behavior” we believe it is prudent and ethical for the REBT therapist to focus clinical interventions on changing the demanding and evaluative nature of some religious beliefs and, when possible, not their theological content. CBT is not a single approach. In Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Often, the therapist assigns homework, such as keeping a journal of thoughts and behaviors or following a schedule designed to increase participation in pleasant activities.